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WARIGI: Terrorism is not really about religion; it is politics, stupid

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By GITAU WARIGI
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Every of our counter-terrorism officials should take a keen interest in what French-American anthropologist Scott Atran says. He is a globally acknowledged authority on the subject of terrorism. He sits as the research director of the National Centre for Scientific Research in Paris. He has ongoing lecturing stints at Cambridge (UK), Princeton (US) and such other places who are interested in understanding the global menace of religious extremism.

Professor Atran’s published thoughts on how governments the world over are reacting to this terrorist problem are a key primer. Mosques no longer recruit you directly. No. They just psyche you up. Most likely you get recruited at your neighbourhood football pitch. The coffee cafe you frequent. By the college mate you share a room with. By the cellmate in prison. That sort of thing. The lovable fellow who shows up to organise the neighbourhood boys for weekend football games fits that kind of suspect.

In Kenya, we have this wrenching reckoning with a phenomenon of home-grown jihadists. Farouk Gichunge — or whatever his name was — of the Dusit Complex attack was living quietly in a Kiambu suburb. He doesn’t fit the usual profile of Somali or Coastal Muslim. Such types are not originally Muslim, but converted to it. They are wild and reckless, like any converts to a new religion tend to be. That’s why they are so amenable to Al-Shabaab indoctrination. But this story is not about religion. Hapana. It is about how religion is used for violent aims.

Studies have shown that these home-grown terrorists never act alone. They are used like on major hits such as Dusit and Westgate. The conceptualisation and planning of the attacks comes from higher-ups in the hierarchy, inside Kenya or outside. For Dusit and Westgate, they use the local network of the Gichunges and company. For bigger hits, like the US embassy bombing in 1998, they come in themselves.

A different angle was introduced by American scholar Bronwyn Bruton, who studies Somalia for the Atlantic Council, a US think tank. She divides Al-Shabaab into two — the nationalists and the ideologues. There are those in the hierarchy who believe in global jihad, and there are those types who are simply Somali nationalists. The nationalists want the interim Somalia government out, and especially our KDF. The ideologues need Somalia as a base for global Islamist jihad. These are the ones who announced an alliance with Al-Qaeda. ISIS and Al-Qaeda are in this category.

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Ms Bruton makes a lot of sense. The usual explanation of jihadism that it is bred by poverty and alienation is mistaken. Gichunge was living a fairly well-to-do life, by Kenyan standards. The most famous terrorist of all, Osama bin Laden, was a rich Saudi aristocrat. He left his cushy construction job to go wage war against the Soviet Union in Afghanistan. Scores of middle-class Somali youths from the US state of Minnesota have flooded into Somalia eager to join the jihad. Kenya, and Ethiopia, are watching. And they mean business. Alienation may be a factor, but the thrill of getting a bigger meaning from a drab life could be the clincher. How else to explain a suicide bomber? A person who ties herself up in explosives and blows herself up, shouting Allah? What else would it mean?

The home-grown terrorist like Gichunge is not necessarily fired up by the dream of a greater Somalia. He doesn’t even understand the geopolitics of it all. But his controllers do. Bigger still are the jihadists, who read the world as a struggle between good and evil. That’s where groups like ISIS in Syria come in. The argument about Kenya getting our forces out of Somalia is based on this: that you can never win against a foe fired up by religious craziness. Militarily Somalia is no match for Kenya. It is an insurgency headache which, unfortunately, we have to live with for decades.

If I was running the Somali counter-insurgency policy, I would split it into two. Co-opt the nationalists. Then kill the jihadists. That’s what America is doing. Don’t — I say don’t — allow our border points to be breached.

By the way, that border militancy is one thing I love about Donald Trump. And close the Dadaab camp. It serves no purpose than to let terrorists seep through.

Let me repeat: Today’s jihadism has nothing to do with religion. The same way the Christian Crusades were engineered centuries ago to serve a political purpose disguised as religious.

On the same token, jihadism is purely political. The Taliban want the Americans out of Afghanistan. The Chechens want the Russians out of their land. The Chinese are battling a weird thing in their western province called the Uighurs. Everywhere you look, the story is the same. How will we ever fix these minds? I don’t know.

This story gets back to Atran, the professor. He says to destroy jihadism, change the minds. It’s a tough task.



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Sordid tale of the bank ‘that would bribe God’

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Bank of Credit and Commerce International. August 1991. [File, Standard]

“This bank would bribe God.” These words of a former employee of the disgraced Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) sum up one of the most rotten global financial institutions.
BCCI pitched itself as a top bank for the Third World, but its spectacular collapse would reveal a web of transnational corruption and a playground for dictators, drug lords and terrorists.
It was one of the largest banks cutting across 69 countries and its aftermath would cause despair to innocent depositors, including Kenyans.
BCCI, which had $20 billion (Sh2.1 trillion in today’s exchange rate) assets globally, was revealed to have lost more than its entire capital.
The bank was founded in 1972 by the crafty Pakistani banker Agha Hasan Abedi.
He was loved in his homeland for his charitable acts but would go on to break every rule known to God and man.
In 1991, the Bank of England (BoE) froze its assets, citing large-scale fraud running for several years. This would see the bank cease operations in multiple countries. The Luxembourg-based BCCI was 77 per cent owned by the Gulf Emirate of Abu Dhabi.  
BoE investigations had unearthed laundering of drugs money, terrorism financing and the bank boasted of having high-profile customers such as Panama’s former strongman Manual Noriega as customers.
The Standard, quoting “highly placed” sources reported that Abu Dhabi ruler Sheikh Zayed Sultan would act as guarantor to protect the savings of Kenyan depositors.
The bank had five branches countrywide and panic had gripped depositors on the state of their money.
Central Bank of Kenya (CBK) would then move to appoint a manager to oversee the operations of the BCCI operations in Kenya.
It sent statements assuring depositors that their money was safe.
The Standard reported that the Sheikh would be approaching the Kenyan and other regional subsidiaries of the bank to urge them to maintain operations and assure them of his personal support.
It was said that contact between CBK and Abu Dhabi was “likely.”
This came as the British Ambassador to the UAE Graham Burton implored the gulf state to help compensate Britons, and the Indian government also took similar steps.
The collapse of BCCI was, however, not expect to badly hit the Kenyan banking system. This was during the sleazy 1990s when Kenya’s banking system was badly tested. It was the era of high graft and “political banks,” where the institutions fraudulently lent to firms belonging or connected to politicians, who were sometimes also shareholders.
And even though the impact was expected to be minimal, it was projected that a significant number of depositors would transfer funds from Asian and Arab banks to other local institutions.
“Confidence in Arab banking has taken a serious knock,” the “highly placed” source told The Standard.
BCCI didn’t go down without a fight. It accused the British government of a conspiracy to bring down the Pakistani-run bank.  The Sheikh was said to be furious and would later engage in a protracted legal battle with the British.
“It looks to us like a Western plot to eliminate a successful Muslim-run Third World Bank. We know that it often acted unethically. But that is no excuse for putting it out of business, especially as the Sultan of Abu Dhabi had agreed to a restructuring plan,” said a spokesperson for British Asians.
A CBK statement signed by then-Deputy Governor Wanjohi Murithi said it was keenly monitoring affairs of the mother bank and would go to lengths to protect Kenyan depositors.
“In this respect, the CBK has sought and obtained the assurance of the branch’s management that the interests of depositors are not put at risk by the difficulties facing the parent company and that the bank will meet any withdrawal instructions by depositors in the normal course of business,” said Mr Murithi.
CBK added that it had maintained surveillance of the local branch and was satisfied with its solvency and liquidity.
This was meant to stop Kenyans from making panic withdrawals.
For instance, armed policemen would be deployed at the bank’s Nairobi branch on Koinange Street after the bank had announced it would shut its Kenyan operations.
In Britain, thousands of businesses owned by British Asians were on the verge of financial ruin following the closure of BCCI.
Their firms held almost half of the 120,000 bank accounts registered with BCCI in Britain. 
The African Development Bank was also not spared from this mess, with the bulk of its funds deposited and BCCI and stood to lose every coin.
Criminal culture
In Britain, local authorities from Scotland to the Channel Islands are said to have lost over £100 million (Sh15.2 billion in today’s exchange rate).
The biggest puzzle remained how BCCI was allowed by BoE and other monetary regulation authorities globally to reach such levels of fraudulence.
This was despite the bank being under tight watch owing to the conviction of some of its executives on narcotics laundering charges in the US.
Coast politician, the late Shariff Nassir, would claim that five primary schools in Mombasa lost nearly Sh1 million and appealed to then Education Minister George Saitoti to help recover the savings. Then BoE Governor Robin Leigh-Pemberton condemned it as so deeply immersed in fraud that rescue or recovery – at least in Britain – was out of the question.
“The culture of the bank is criminal,” he said. The bank was revealed to have targeted the Third World and had created several “institutional devices” to promote its operations in developing countries.
These included the Third World Foundation for Social and Economic Studies, a British-registered charity.
“It allowed it to cultivate high-level contacts among international statesmen,” reported The Observer, a British newspaper.
BCCI also arranged an annual Third World lecture and a Third World prize endowment fund of about $10 million (Sh1 billion in today’s exchange rate).
Winners of the annual prize had included Nelson Mandela (1985), sir Bob Geldof (1986) and Archbishop Desmond Tutu (1989).
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Monitor water pumps remotely via your phone

Tracking and monitoring motor vehicles is not new to Kenyans. Competition to install affordable tracking devices is fierce but essential for fleet managers who receive reports online and track vehicles from the comfort of their desk.

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Agricultural Development Corporation Chief Accountant Gerald Karuga on the Spot Over Fraud –

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Gerald Karuga, the acting chief accountant at the Agricultural Development Corporation (ADC), is on the spot over fraud in land dealings.

ADC was established in 1965 through an Act of Parliament Cap 346 to facilitate the land transfer programme from European settlers to locals after Kenya gained independence.

Karuga is under fire for allegedly aiding a former powerful permanent secretary in the KANU era Benjamin Kipkulei to deprive ADC beneficiaries of their land in Naivasha.

Kahawa Tungu understands that the aggrieved parties continue to protest the injustice and are now asking the Ethics and Anti-corruption Commission (EACC) and the Directorate of Criminal Investigations (DCI) to probe Karuga.

A source who spoke to Weekly Citizen publication revealed that Managing Director Mohammed Dulle is also involved in the mess at ADC.

Read: Ministry of Agriculture Apologizes After Sending Out Tweets Portraying the President in bad light

Dulle is accused of sidelining a section of staffers in the parastatal.

The sources at ADC intimated that Karuga has been placed strategically at ADC to safeguard interests of many people who acquired the corporations’ land as “donations” from former President Daniel Arap Moi.

Despite working at ADC for many years Karuga has never been transferred, a trend that has raised eyebrows.

“Karuga has worked here for more than 30 years and unlike other senior officers in other parastatals who are transferred after promotion or moved to different ministries, for him, he has stuck here for all these years and we highly suspect that he is aiding people who were dished out with big chunks of land belonging to the corporation in different parts of the country,” said the source.

In the case of Karuga safeguarding Kipkulei’s interests, workers at the parastatals and the victims who claim to have lost their land in Naivasha revealed that during the Moi regime some senior officials used dubious means to register people as beneficiaries of land without their knowledge and later on colluded with rogue land officials at the Ministry of Lands to acquire title deeds in their names instead of those of the benefactors.

Read Also: Galana Kulalu Irrigation Scheme To Undergo Viability Test Before Being Privatised

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“We have information that Karuga has benefitted much from Kipkulei through helping him and this can be proved by the fact that since the matter of the Naivasha land began, he has been seen changing and buying high-end vehicles that many people of his rank in government can’t afford to buy or maintain,” the source added.

“He is even building a big apartment for rent in Ruiru town.”

The wealthy officer is valued at over Sh1.5 billion in prime properties and real estate.

Last month, more than 100 squatters caused scenes in Naivasha after raiding a private firm owned by Kipkulei.

The squatters, who claimed to have lived on the land for more than 40 years, were protesting take over of the land by a private developer who had allegedly bought the land from the former PS.

They pulled down a three-kilometre fence that the private developed had erected.

The squatters claimed that the former PS had not informed them that he had sold the land and that the developer was spraying harmful chemicals on the grass affecting their livestock and homes built on a section of the land.

Read Also: DP Ruto Wants NCPB And Other Agricultural Bodies Merged For Efficiency

Naivasha Deputy County Commissioner Kisilu Mutua later issued a statement warning the squatters against encroaching on Kipkuleir’s land.

“They are illegally invading private land. We shall not allow the rule of the jungle to take root,” warned Mutua.

Meanwhile, a parliamentary committee recently demanded to know identities of 10 faceless people who grabbed 30,350 acres of land belonging to the parastatal, exposing the rot at the corporation.

ADC Chairman Nick Salat, who doubles up as the KANU party Secretary-General, denied knowledge of the individuals and has asked DCI to probe the matter.

Email your news TIPS to [email protected] or WhatsApp +254708677607. You can also find us on Telegram through www.t.me/kahawatungu

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William Ruto eyes Raila Odinga Nyanza backyard

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Deputy President William Ruto will next month take his ‘hustler nation’ campaigns to his main rival, ODM leader Raila Odinga’s Nyanza backyard, in an escalation of the 2022 General Election competition.

Acrimonious fall-out

Development agenda

Won’t bear fruit

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