Ethno-veterinary Medicine (EVM) is as old as the domestication of livestock. It comprises belief, knowledge, practices and skills relating to animal healthcare and management.
India, for example, has a sophisticated medical culture with a tradition of over 5,000 years.
Elements of ethno-veterinary culture include application of natural products such as pawpaw seeds and ginger, medicinal plants, edible earth and minerals on animal parts and products, manipulations and surgery such as castration and appeal to spiritual forces.
In Kenya, EVM is highly practised by the pastoral communities, but it is also gaining momentum in the medium and high potential farming systems.
The national government is mandated to provide for the regulation of production, quality assurance, import and export, marketing and sale of EVM alongside the conventional veterinary medicines while county governments are supposed promote judicious use of EVM in addition to modern medicine.
However, successful implementation of EVM in the country starts with training adequate manpower that is able to integrate traditional animal healthcare with modern medicine.
In this regard, therefore, veterinary medicine training institutions should consider allocating more time to the topic while the farming community should intensify production of medicinal plants for sustained supply.
For now, venturing into EVM requires caution due to possible interaction of EVM with modern drugs that could lead to adverse effects, seasonality and geographical distribution of the plants used as traditional medicine, presence of quacks and unregistered traditional animal healers who are out to fleece farmers, variability and lack of standardisation, inability by the herbal drugs to kill viruses and inadequate policy on the issue.
The EVMs whose use is on the increase include aloe plant species and magadi soda.
Aloe secundiflora and aloe vera
There is a misconception that the above plants are a ‘treat it all’, thus their indiscriminate use has led to massive losses, especially in poultry where they are commonly applied.
This is because the plants only treat a limited number of poultry diseases. Further, every drug has a prescription detailing how much, how long and in which manner to administer it.
Post-mortem examination of birds treated with the aloe species has shown its prolonged use has contributed to deaths.
However, the aloes can treat coccidiosis in poultry, a disease that is characterised by bloody diarrhoea or blood-stained faecal material, bacterial diseases such as colibacillosis, fowl cholera and infectious coryza among others.
The active ingredients are anthraquinone glycoside and quinoids.
To make an application of Aloe secundflora, crush a leaf, mix with a litre of warm water and leave for 15 minutes, sieve and give the liquid to the affected bird as drinking water for 5-7 days. Make a fresh preparation every day. If signs persist, consult a veterinarian.
It can be used to treat bloating (accumulation of gas in the rumen) in cattle, sheep and goats, among other ailments.
To treat bloating, mix half a kilo of magadi with a litre of water and drench adult cattle with the mixture but use half a litre of the same on sheep, goats and calves.
Repeat every two to three hours until the signs subside. Exercise the animal to aid in bloat relief.
World Bank pushes G-20 to extend debt relief to 2021
World Bank Group President David Malpass has urged the Group of 20 rich countries to extend the time frame of the Debt Service Suspension Initiative(DSSI) through the end of 2021, calling it one of the key factors in strengthening global recovery.
“I urge you to extend the time frame of the DSSI through the end of 2021 and commit to giving the initiative as broad a scope as possible,” said Malpass.
He made these remarks at last week’s virtual G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors Meeting.
The World Bank Chief said the COVID-19 pandemic has triggered the deepest global recession in decades and what may turn out to be one of the most unequal in terms of impact.
People in developing countries are particularly hard hit by capital outflows, declines in remittances, the collapse of informal labor markets, and social safety nets that are much less robust than in the advanced economies.
For the poorest countries, poverty is rising rapidly, median incomes are falling and growth is deeply negative.
Debt burdens, already unsustainable for many countries, are rising to crisis levels.
“The situation in developing countries is increasingly desperate. Time is short. We need to take action quickly on debt suspension, debt reduction, debt resolution mechanisms and debt transparency,” said Malpass.
Kenya’s Central Bank Drafts New Laws to Regulate Non-Bank Digital Loans
The Central Bank of Kenya (CBK) will regulate interest rates charged on mobile loans by digital lending platforms if amendments on the Central bank of Kenya Act pass to law. The amendments will require digital lenders to seek approval from CBK before launching new products or changing interest rates on loans among other charges, just like commercial banks.
“The principal objective of this bill is to amend the Central bank of Kenya Act to regulate the conduct of providers of digital financial products and services,” reads a notice on the bill. “CBK will have an obligation of ensuring that there is fair and non-discriminatory marketplace access to credit.”
According to Business Daily, the legislation will also enable the Central Bank to monitor non-performing loans, capping the limit at not twice the amount of the defaulted loan while protecting consumers from predatory lending by digital loan platforms.
Tighter Reins on Platforms for Mobile Loans
The legislation will boost efforts to protect customers, building upon a previous gazette notice that blocked lenders from blacklisting non-performing loans below Ksh 1000. The CBK also withdrew submissions of unregulated mobile loan platforms into Credit Reference Bureau. The withdrawal came after complaints of misuse over data in the Credit Information Sharing (CIS) System available for lenders.
Last year, Kenya had over 49 platforms providing mobile loans, taking advantage of regulation gaps to charge obscene rates as high as 150% a year. While most platforms allow borrowers to prepay within a month, creditors still pay the full amount plus interest.
Amendments in the CBK Act will help shield consumers from high-interest rates as well as offer transparency on terms of digital loans.
Scope Markets Kenya customers to have instant access to global financial markets
NAIROBI, Kenya, Jul 20 – Clients trading through the Scope Markets Kenya trading platform will get instant access to global financial markets and wider investment options.
This follows the launch of a new Scope Markets app, available on both the Google PlayStore and IOS Apple Store.
The Scope Markets app offers clients over 500 investment opportunities across global financial markets.
The Scope Markets app has a brand new user interface that is very user friendly, following feedback from customers.
The application offers real-time quotes; newsfeeds; research facilities, and a chat feature which enables a customer to make direct contact with the Customer Service Team during trading days (Monday to Friday).
The platform also offers an enhanced client interface including catering for those who trade at night.
The client will get instant access to several asset classes in the global financial markets including; Single Stocks CFDs (US, UK, EU) such as Facebook, Amazon, Apple, Netflix and Google, BP, Carrefour; Indices (Nasdaq, FTSE UK), Metals (Gold, Silver); Currencies (60+ Pairs), Commodities (Oil, Natural Gas).
The launch is part of Scope Markets Kenya strategy of enriching the customer experience while offering clients access to global trading opportunities.
Scope Markets Kenya CEO, Kevin Ng’ang’a observed, “the Sope Markets app is very easy to use especially when executing trades. Customers are at the heart of everything we do. We designed the Scope Markets app with the customer experience in mind as we seek to respond to feedback from our customers.”
He added that enhancing the client experience builds upon the robust trading platform, Meta Trader 5, unveiled in 2019, enabling Scope Markets Kenya to broaden the asset classes available on the trading platform.