This time last year was a very sour season. The country had gone through a bitter and divisive election in August and a re-run in October after the Supreme Court nullified the presidential vote and there was enough acrimony in the air to provide electricity to Kenya for a year.
The controversial handshake between President Uhuru Kenyatta and opposition leader Raila Odinga that was to break the political ice dramatically was three months away.
Yet, for contrast, Christmas 2018 couldn’t be more different from Christmas 2017. It is, therefore, a good time to reflect on what happened at the close of last year — and even earlier, to the election of August 2013.
In the goodness of time, history will come to regard the architects of the 2010 Constitution as geniuses. They did many things, some of which they probably were unaware of. One of them is that they freed Kenyan Christmas from politics. The other was a clever bit of climate change political engineering.
Until the new Constitution, elections used to take place in Kenya in December, just after Christmas. That of itself tells you of the silent sway fundamentalist evangelical tendencies that regard the over-indulgence of modern Christmas to be heathen had over the Daniel arap Moi government.
It was bad timing, considering that as the year ends many people are seriously auditing their achievements of the year. Therefore, having an election in December, as opposed to August, means people — the majority of who rarely fare well in Africa — go to the ballot when they have crystallised their anger at having made little progress.
To make it worse, there is, perhaps, no time when the poor in predominantly “Christian” countries like Kenya, Uganda or Tanzania feel their marginalisation more than over Christmas, when they see all the lights at the malls and the better-off folk setting up for festive season feasts they only read about in the Bible. Holding elections in late December meant that, after the ethnic animus that rules Kenyan politics, by that timing it was always bound to be a grievance vote.
Then it was moved from December. It is hard to measure how much that affects election behaviour but it might partly explain why the elections of 2013 and 2017 didn’t break out in large-scale violence although, in some respects, they were more acrimonious than the December 2007 poll that plunged Kenya into hell.
The other thing is that the August vote takes place when the weather is cooler, and the most intense campaigns take place between May and July, when it’s quite cold in parts of Kenya. Some years ago, I read an article that speculated that, because the elections were happening at the end of the year when it’s hot, in the tin-shack slums that ring Nairobi, the ambient temperatures were so high the wananchi were far more agitated than during the cold season. They were, therefore, more likely to erupt in violence when cheated.
So, the framers of the 2010 Constitution also seemed to understand the impact of weather on national temperament. Of course, if this is true, it also means the risks of stealing an August election are lower than doing it in December because the backlash will likely be more measured.
If we look at the 2007 vote and the resultant post-election violence (PEV) at the start of 2008, then at the 2013 election, we also get some interesting pointers. The 2008 PEV energised Kenya’s conservative political forces but also defined the type of alliance that Raila could build for his 2013 bid.
The raw nerves exposed by the PEV meant that, in 2013, the political cost for moderates and people from the left in pro-Mwai Kibaki areas supporting Raila was too high and few of them could do so openly. Kibaki, therefore, managed to put together mostly a loose regional coalition around his candidacy.
However, because there was no violence in 2013, that cost was very low in 2017. The result was that the Nasa coalition, on which Raila ran last year, was largely a left of centre alliance, the first time that happened in Kenya in a long time.
In 2002, yes, there was a large left of centre contingent in the National Rainbow Coalition (Narc) that catapulted Kibaki to victory, but it was a co-habitation with the conservatives. In the end, the conservatives won out after Kibaki was installed President.
The Nasa left and moderates did not seek to fight over Kenya on the streets. They proposed to re-engineer the country, a cerebral exercise, not to take to the barricades. That further meant that 2008-style election violence was averted. All this thanks, in part, to whoever freed Kenya’s Christmas in 2010.
Mr Onyango-Obbo is the publisher of Africapedia.com and explainer Roguechiefs.com. @cobbo3
Public officers above 58 years and with pre-existing conditions told to work from home: The Standard
Head of Public Service Joseph Kinyua. [File, Standard]
In a document from Head of Public Service, Joseph Kinyua new measure have been outlined to curb the bulging spread of covid-19. Public officers with underlying health conditions and those who are over 58 years -a group that experts have classified as most vulnerable to the virus will be required to execute their duties from home.
However, the new rule excluded personnel in the security sector and other critical and essential services.
“All State and public officers with pre-existing medical conditions and/or aged 58 years and above serving in CSG5 (job group ‘S’) and below or their equivalents should forthwith work from home,” read the document,” read the document.
To ensure that those working from home deliver, the Public Service directs that there be clear assignments and targets tasked for the period designated and a clear reporting line to monitor and review work done.
SEE ALSO: Thinking inside the cardboard box for post-lockdown work stations
Others measures outlined in the document include the provision of personal protective equipment to staff, provision of sanitizers and access to washing facilities fitted with soap and water, temperature checks for all staff and clients entering public offices regular fumigation of office premises and vehicles and minimizing of visitors except by prior appointments.
Officers who contract the virus and come back to work after quarantine or isolation period will be required to follow specific directives such as obtaining clearance from the isolation facility certified by the designated persons indicating that the public officer is free and safe from Covid-19. The officer will also be required to stay away from duty station for a period of seven days after the date of medical certification.
“The period a public officer spends in quarantine or isolation due to Covid-19, shall be treated as sick leave and shall be subject to the Provisions of the Human Resource Policy and procedures Manual for the Public Service(May,2016),” read the document.
The service has also made discrimination and stigmatization an offence and has guaranteed those affected with the virus to receive adequate access to mental health and psychosocial supported offered by the government.
The new directives targeting the Public Services come at a time when Kenyans have increasingly shown lack of strict observance of the issued guidelines even as the number of positive Covid-19 cases skyrocket to 13,771 and leaving 238 dead as of today.
SEE ALSO: Working from home could be blessing in disguise for persons with disabilities
Principal Secretaries/ Accounting Officers will be personally responsible for effective enforcement and compliance of the current guidelines and any future directives issued to mitigate the spread of Covid-19.
Uhuru convenes summit to review rising Covid-19 cases: The Standard
President Uhuru Kenyatta (pictured) will on Friday, July 24, meet governors following the ballooning Covid-19 infections in recent days.
The session will among other things review the efficacy of the containment measures in place and review the impact of the phased easing of the restrictions, State House said in a statement.
This story is being updated.
SEE ALSO: Sakaja resigns from Covid-19 Senate committee, in court tomorrow
Drastic life changes affecting mental health
Kenya has been ranked 6th among African countries with the highest cases of depression, this has triggered anxiety by the World Health Organization (WHO), with 1.9 million people suffering from a form of mental conditions such as depression, substance abuse.
Globally, one in four people is affected by mental or neurological disorders at some point in their lives, this is according to the WHO.
Currently, around 450 million people suffer from such conditions, placing mental disorders among the leading causes of ill-health and disability worldwide.
The pandemic has also been known to cause significant distress, mostly affecting the state of one’s mental well-being.
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With the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic attributed to the novel Coronavirus disease, millions have been affected globally with over 14 million infections and half a million deaths as to date. This has brought about uncertainty coupled with difficult situations, including job loss and the risk of contracting the deadly virus.
In Kenya the first Coronavirus case was reported in Nairobi by the Ministry of Health on the 12th March 2020. It was not until the government put in place precautionary measures including a curfew and lockdown (the latter having being lifted) due to an increase in the number of infections that people began feeling its effect both economically and socially.
A study by Dr. Habil Otanga, a Lecturer at the University of Nairobi, Department of Psychology says that such measures can in turn lead to surge in mental related illnesses including depression, feelings of confusion, anger and fear, and even substance abuse. It also brings with it a sense of boredom, loneliness, anger, isolation and frustration. In the post-quarantine/isolation period, loss of employment due to the depressed economy and the stigma around the disease are also likely to lead to mental health problems.
The Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) states that at least 300,000 Kenyans have lost their jobs due to the Coronavirus pandemic between the period of January and March this year.
KNBC noted that the number of employed Kenyans plunged to 17.8 million as of March from 18.1 million people as compared to last year in December. The Report states that the unemployment rate in Kenya stands at 13.7 per cent as of March this year while it stood 12.4 per cent in December 2019.
Mama T (not her real name) is among millions of Kenyans who have been affected by containment measures put in place to curb the spread of the virus, either by losing their source of income or having to work under tough guidelines put in place by the MOH.
As young mother and an event organizer, she has found it hard to explain to her children why they cannot go to school or socialize freely with their peers as before.
“Sometimes it gets difficult as they do not understand what is happening due to their age, this at times becomes hard on me as they often think I am punishing them,”
Her contract was put on hold as no event or public gatherings can take place due to the pandemic. This has brought other challenges along with it, as she has to find means of fending for her family expenditures that including rent and food.
“I often wake up in the middle of the night with worries about my next move as the pandemic does not exhibit any signs of easing up,” she says. She adds that she has been forced to sort for manual jobs to keep her family afloat.
Ms. Mary Wahome, a Counseling Psychologist and Programs Director at ‘The Reason to Hope,’ in Karen, Nairobi says that such kind of drastic life changes have an adverse effect on one’s mental status including their family members and if not addressed early can lead to depression among other issues.
“We have had cases of people indulging in substance abuse to deal with the uncertainty and stress brought about by the pandemic, this in turn leads to dependence and also domestic abuse,”
Sam Njoroge , a waiter at a local hotel in Kiambu, has found himself indulging in substance abuse due to challenges he is facing after the hotel he was working in was closed down as it has not yet met the standards required by the MOH to open.
“My day starts at 6am where I go to a local pub, here I can get a drink for as little as Sh30, It makes me suppress the frustration I feel.” he says.
Sam is among the many who have found themselves in the same predicament and resulted to substance abuse finding ways to beat strict measures put in place by the government on the sale of alcohol so as to cope.
Mary says, situations like Sam’s are dangerous and if not addressed early can lead to serious complications, including addiction and dependency, violent behavior and also early death due to health complications.
She has, however, lauded the government for encouraging mental wellness and also launching the Psychological First Aid (PFA) guide in the wake of the virus putting emphasis on the three action principal of look, listen and link. “When we follow this it will be easy to identify an individual in distress and also offer assistance”.
Mary has urged anyone feeling the weight of the virus taking a toll on them not to hesitate but look for someone to talk to.
“You should not only seek help from a specialist but also talk to a friend, let them know what you are undergoing and how you feel, this will help ease their emotional stress and also find ways of dealing with the situation they are facing,” She added
Mary continued to stress on the need to perform frequent body exercises as a form of stress relief, reading and also taking advantage of this unfortunate COVID-19 period to engage in hobbies and talent development.
“Let people take this as an opportunity to kip fit, get in touch with one’s inner self and also engage in reading that would help expand their knowledge.