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Kenyan traders want long-running business war with Tanzania solved





Kenyan traders want long-running business war with Tanzania solved

A goods truck crosses into Tanzania from Kenya at the Namanga border. FILE PHOTO | NMG 

Kenyan traders say they have had enough with Tanzania playing hard ball when it comes to local products entering its market.

From requirements to label items in Kiswahili to concealed visa fees for traders entering Tanzania and loaded taxes that make products hard to sell there, Kenyan traders are now pushing for retaliation in what may result in spasmodic bilateral tiffs between the two East African neighbours.

Tanzania, according to details of multiple meetings meant to break trade stalemates between the pair, has continued to tilt the playground even as goods from the country enter Kenya freely.

The simmering tit-for-tat feud, according to sources familiar with the ongoings, started after a Sectoral Council on Trade, Industry, Finance and Investment (SCTIFI) meeting held in Arusha between November 12-16 last year.

The Kenyan delegation led by Trade and Industrialisation Cabinet Secretary Peter Munya was in Tanzania for the second time after a similar forum in May raised concerns over multiple non-tariff barriers placed on Kenyan goods entering Tanzania.

While partner states of the East African region are required to treat goods manufactured from one another’s country like local, Tanzania has been finding various reasons to slap heavy duty on Kenyan products.

It cites several inconsistencies including duty-free importation of sugar into the Kenyan market in 2017.

Tanzanian authorities insist that Kenyan manufacturers had used the duty-free product to make sweets and other confectioneries.

Dar then slapped a 25 per cent import duty on Kenyan confectionery, juice, ice cream and chewing gum. The duty went on for months forcing Kenya to threaten its neighbour with a ban after Tanzanian officials set to visit Kenyan factories to verify the claim kept postponing the tour.

Uganda had joined the punitive duty as Kenyan products became uncompetitive in the two markets and traders suffered massive losses.

When they finally visited in June 2018 and found that none of the Kenyan manufacturers of confectioneries and sugar-based products benefited from sugar imported under zero duty, only Uganda lifted the duty. Tanzania refused to bulge.

“Uganda has implemented the findings while Tanzania reported that they have reservations. Further, Tanzania charges 35 per cent duty to confectionery and sugar-based products, in addition they also charge Railway Development Levy at 1.5 per cent and Tanzania Food and Drugs Authority (TFDA) levy of 1.5 per cent, among others. This is contrary to what Tanzania was directed not to charge stayed tariffs during the SCTIFI May2018,” read a briefing prepared by the Kenya Association of Manufacturers after the November meeting.

Tanzania reportedly wrote to the EAC secretariat informing the reasons for not granting preferential treatment to confectioneries from Kenya. The matter remains unresolved.

Tanzania has since asked for a second verification; a move Kenya has rejected, according to the KAM brief.


“The Republic of Kenya does not find merit in the second verification proposed by the United Republic of Tanzania and therefore rejects it. This also requires Kenya to retaliate to Tanzania’s similar products: juices, confectionery, ice cream,” reads the KAM brief.

The East Africa Community common market made up of Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi allows free movement of locally manufactured goods within the bloc.

Duty free sugar is not only the bone of contention between the two countries, Tanzania has been punishing Kenyan tobacco manufacturers exporting the commodity into the country in a dispute that remains unresolved since 2005 when the custom union commenced.

Not even the various forums including bilateral meetings and at the presidential level between the two countries have been able to resolve the issue. Tanzania continues to levy a discriminatory excise duty of 80 per cent on tobacco products from Kenya making them too expensive to compete in the country.

In August, Tanzania through a gazette notice restricted its beef product dealers on where to source from locking out some Kenyans from the market. The increased fees also rendered animal and their products from Kenya uncompetitive in Tanzania.

A litre of Kenya’s UHT milk for example rose to Tz Sh3,300 (Sh145) to Tz Sh6,500 (Sh284) against local products which are retailing at Tz Sh3,300 after the fees were lumped on them against the Custom Union Protocol which prohibits partner states from imposing protective taxation to local out products from partner states.

Kenyan traders have also been unhappy with Tanzania for charging $250 for a business visa. The fees charged on all the EAC business persons entering Tanzania is branded a ‘Certificate of Temporary Assignment (CTA) as Tanzania maintains that the charge is just a ‘fee on a pass.’

Kenyan traders are now pushing for a similar discriminative visa or pass fee until the charges are dropped by Tanzania.

Kenya largely imports wheat, textiles and clothing, cooking gas, hides and skin, oil seeds, vegetables, rice, paper and paperboard, footwear, wood, plastic and rubber, among other products from Tanzania.

Exporters who spoke to Sunday Nation incognito for fear of further product discrimination said goods from Tanzania get smoothly in Kenya with some of the traders bragging of having Kenyan authorities ‘in their pockets.’

“When we make any ban, Tanzania pulls the diplomatic card and then we go into negations, temporary truce and then back to where we were. It is tiring and Kenya must now act to save us from this unfair trade,” the exporter said, adding that senior trade authorities are aware of the simmering trade tiff.

Such barriers including a lengthy processing of single Customs Territory (SCT) export documents which take up to 10 days to be cleared instead of three adding to the cost of business as transporters charge up to Sh30,000 for the delay have tilted cross-border trade in favour of Tanzania in what is fanning protests from local manufacturers.

Tanzania’s hardball is part of the reasons Kenya’s exports in EAC declined by 30 per cent from $1.6 billion to $1.1 billion in the period 2012 to 2017 while imports have expanded by 60 per cent from $0.4 billion to $0.6 billion in the same period.

Increased exports by Tanzania and Uganda, however, drove up intra-regional exports from $2.7 billion in 2016 to $2.9 billion in 2017. Tanzania and Uganda export grew by 18.4 per cent and 37.3 per cent respectively.

Rwanda recorded intra-regional export growth of 6.4 per cent while Kenya, South Sudan and Burundi recorded a decline of 7.4 per cent, 24.2 per cent and 6 per cent, respectively.

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BCCI: The bank ‘that would bribe God’



Bank of Credit and Commerce International. August 1991. [File, Standard]

“This bank would bribe God.” These words of a former employee of the disgraced Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) sum up one of the most rotten global financial institutions.

BCCI pitched itself as a top bank for the Third World, but its spectacular collapse would reveal a web of transnational corruption and a playground for dictators, drug lords and terrorists.

It was one of the largest banks cutting across 69 countries and its aftermath would cause despair to innocent depositors, including Kenyans.

BCCI, which had $20 billion (Sh2.1 trillion in today’s exchange rate) assets globally, was revealed to have lost more than its entire capital.

The bank was founded in 1972 by the crafty Pakistani banker Agha Hasan Abedi.

He was loved in his homeland for his charitable acts but would go on to break every rule known to God and man.

In 1991, the Bank of England (BoE) froze its assets, citing large-scale fraud running for several years. This would see the bank cease operations in multiple countries. The Luxembourg-based BCCI was 77 per cent owned by the Gulf Emirate of Abu Dhabi.  

BoE investigations had unearthed laundering of drugs money, terrorism financing and the bank boasted of having high-profile customers such as Panama’s former strongman Manual Noriega as customers.

The Standard, quoting “highly placed” sources reported that Abu Dhabi ruler Sheikh Zayed Sultan would act as guarantor to protect the savings of Kenyan depositors.

The bank had five branches countrywide and panic had gripped depositors on the state of their money.

Central Bank of Kenya (CBK) would then move to appoint a manager to oversee the operations of the BCCI operations in Kenya.

It sent statements assuring depositors that their money was safe.

The Standard reported that the Sheikh would be approaching the Kenyan and other regional subsidiaries of the bank to urge them to maintain operations and assure them of his personal support.

It was said that contact between CBK and Abu Dhabi was “likely.”

This came as the British Ambassador to the UAE Graham Burton implored the gulf state to help compensate Britons, and the Indian government also took similar steps.

The collapse of BCCI was, however, not expect to badly hit the Kenyan banking system. This was during the sleazy 1990s when Kenya’s banking system was badly tested. It was the era of high graft and “political banks,” where the institutions fraudulently lent to firms belonging or connected to politicians, who were sometimes also shareholders.

And even though the impact was expected to be minimal, it was projected that a significant number of depositors would transfer funds from Asian and Arab banks to other local institutions.

“Confidence in Arab banking has taken a serious knock,” the “highly placed” source told The Standard.

BCCI didn’t go down without a fight. It accused the British government of a conspiracy to bring down the Pakistani-run bank.  The Sheikh was said to be furious and would later engage in a protracted legal battle with the British.

“It looks to us like a Western plot to eliminate a successful Muslim-run Third World Bank. We know that it often acted unethically. But that is no excuse for putting it out of business, especially as the Sultan of Abu Dhabi had agreed to a restructuring plan,” said a spokesperson for British Asians.


A CBK statement signed by then-Deputy Governor Wanjohi Murithi said it was keenly monitoring affairs of the mother bank and would go to lengths to protect Kenyan depositors.

“In this respect, the CBK has sought and obtained the assurance of the branch’s management that the interests of depositors are not put at risk by the difficulties facing the parent company and that the bank will meet any withdrawal instructions by depositors in the normal course of business,” said Mr Murithi.

CBK added that it had maintained surveillance of the local branch and was satisfied with its solvency and liquidity.

This was meant to stop Kenyans from making panic withdrawals.

For instance, armed policemen would be deployed at the bank’s Nairobi branch on Koinange Street after the bank had announced it would shut its Kenyan operations.

In Britain, thousands of businesses owned by British Asians were on the verge of financial ruin following the closure of BCCI.

Their firms held almost half of the 120,000 bank accounts registered with BCCI in Britain. 

The African Development Bank was also not spared from this mess, with the bulk of its funds deposited and BCCI and stood to lose every coin.

Criminal culture

In Britain, local authorities from Scotland to the Channel Islands are said to have lost over £100 million (Sh15.2 billion in today’s exchange rate).

The biggest puzzle remained how BCCI was allowed by BoE and other monetary regulation authorities globally to reach such levels of fraudulence.

This was despite the bank being under tight watch owing to the conviction of some of its executives on narcotics laundering charges in the US.

Coast politician, the late Shariff Nassir, would claim that five primary schools in Mombasa lost nearly Sh1 million and appealed to then Education Minister George Saitoti to help recover the savings. Then BoE Governor Robin Leigh-Pemberton condemned it as so deeply immersed in fraud that rescue or recovery – at least in Britain – was out of the question.

“The culture of the bank is criminal,” he said. The bank was revealed to have targeted the Third World and had created several “institutional devices” to promote its operations in developing countries.

These included the Third World Foundation for Social and Economic Studies, a British-registered charity.

“It allowed it to cultivate high-level contacts among international statesmen,” reported The Observer, a British newspaper.

BCCI also arranged an annual Third World lecture and a Third World prize endowment fund of about $10 million (Sh1 billion in today’s exchange rate).

Winners of the annual prize had included Nelson Mandela (1985), sir Bob Geldof (1986) and Archbishop Desmond Tutu (1989).

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Tracking and monitoring motor vehicles is not new to Kenyans. Competition to install affordable tracking devices is fierce but essential for fleet managers who receive reports online and track vehicles from the comfort of their desk.

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East Africa celebrates top women in banking and finance




The Angaza Awards for Women to watch in Banking and Finance in East Africa took place Online via Zoom on 8th June 2021.

The event was set to celebrate the top 10 women shaping banking and finance across East Africa. The 2021 Angaza Awards, which will be a Pan-African Awards program, was also announced at the event.

Key speakers at this webinar were Dr Nancy Onyango, Director of Internal Audit and Inspection at the IMF; and Gail Evans, New York Times Best Selling Author of Play Like a Man, Win Like a Woman and former White House Aide and CNN Executive Vice President.

Dr Nancy Onyango advised women to deep expertise in their fields, spend time in forums and link with key players in that sector.
“Gain exposure with other cultures by seeking for employment overseas and use customized CV for each job application,” said Dr Onyango.

According to Gail Evans, women should show up and be fully present in meetings and not be preoccupied with other issues.
“Be simple and avoid jargon. Multi-tasking only means that you are mediocre Smart people ask good questions in a business meeting. Most women face drawbacks due to perfectionism, procrastination and fear of failure, said Evans.

She advised women to play like a man and win like a woman, be strategic, and intentionally make their moves to get to the top.

“For us to pull up businesses that have been affected by effects of COVID-19 pandemic, we need to re-invent business models, change the product offering and make more use of digital platforms,” said Mary Wamae Equity Group Executive Director.

Mary Wamae emerged top at the inaugural Angaza awards( East Africa) ahead of other finalists.

While women continue to excel in banking and finance, the number of that occupies top executive positions is still less.

“There is a gap for women occupying C suite level and it continues to widen in the finance sector. At entry level, there is still an experience gap for women,” said Nkirote Mworia, Group Secretary for UAP-Old Mutual Group.

She said that at the Middle Management level, women do not express their ambition. For this reason, UAP-Old Mutual has developed an executive sponsorship program to help women get to the next level.

Mworia added that most women hold the notion that top positions in management have politics and pressure.
“One needs leadership skills and not technical expertise to get to the top,” said Mworia.

According to Catherine Karimi, Chief Executive Officer and Principal Officer of APA Life Assurance Company, women need to focus on the strengths and natural abilities that they already have.


“Take risks and raise your hand to get to the high table. Find mentors along the way and develop your own brand and not compare yourself with others Focus on your strengths because it will make you move faster in the career ladder,” said Karimi.

Lina Mukashyaka Higiro, a Rwandan businesswoman and chief executive officer of the NCBA Bank Rwanda since July 2018, has three lessons for women who want to excel in banking and finance.
“Always spend at least 20 minutes each day reading, seeking genuine feedback from other staff members and widen your network,” Higiro told the webinar.

Women picked for Angaza awards

Mary Wamae, Executive Director, led this year’s Top 10 Women in Angaza Awards, Equity Group (Kenya)(2)Catherine Karimi, Chief Executive Officer, APA Life Insurance Company (Kenya)(3)Lina Higiro, Chief Executive Officer, NCBA Bank (Rwanda)(4)Elizabeth Wasunna Ochwa, Business Banking Director, Absa Bank (Kenya)(5)Joanita Jaggwe, Country Head of Risk and Compliance, KCB Group (South Sudan)(6) Millicent Omukaga, Technical Assistance Expert on Inclusive Finance, African Development Bank (Kenya)(7)Emmanuella Nzahabonimana, Head of Information Technology, KCB Group (Rwanda)(8)Judith Sidi Odhiambo, Group Head of Corporate Affairs, KCB Group (Kenya)(9)Rosemary Ngure, ESG & Impact Manager, Catalyst Principal Partners (Kenya) and(10)Pooja Bhatt, Co-Founder, QuantaRisk and QuantaInsure (Kenya).

The Kenyan Wallstreet, a financial media firm, partnered with Kaleidoscope Consultants to raise awareness of seasoned women shaping and influencing the sector through their organizations.

The Angaza Award criteria included assessing the applicants’ area of responsibility and contribution to firm performance. Professionals in Banking, Capital Markets, Insurance, Investment Banking, Fintech, Fund Management, Microfinance, and SACCOs were invited to submit their applications or nominations via the Kenyan Wallstreet Award Web page.

ALSO READ: Angaza Awards Top Finalist; Mary Wangari Wamae

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IFC in New Partnership to Develop Affordable Housing in Mombasa County




NAIROBI, Kenya, Jun 14 – International Finance Corporation, a member of the World Bank Group, has signed a new deal in support of affordable housing in Kenya.

The corporation has partnered with Belco Realty LLP, to develop a mixed use affordable living complex that will consist of 1,379 residential units and over 4,500 square meters of retail and commercial spaces in Kongowea, Mombasa County.

Together with the Kenyan firm, IFC says the partnership will help meet surging demand for housing in Kenya.

Under the agreement, IFC will help identify suitable international strategic partners to invest equity of up to $12 million, or Sh1.3 billion in Belco and to provide the company with the necessary technical support to develop the project.

The development, known as Kongowea Village, will be developed to foster inclusive and affordable community living within the city.

Jumoke Jagun-Dokunmu, IFC’s Regional Director for Eastern Africa says the project, which will be located on eight acres within the heart of Mombasa city, will aim to be a catalyst for wider city regeneration.

The project will be developed to meet IFC EDGE certification requirements and will incorporate the latest technologies in passive cooling, energy efficiency and water conservation to support sustainable urbanization.

 Kongowea Village is expected to create 1,160 jobs and business opportunities during the three-year construction period and many more after completion of the project within the themed retail arcade.


 “Access to quality housing is a growing problem in Kenya and across Africa,” said Jumoke Jagun-Dokunmu, IFC’s Regional Director for Eastern Africa.

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“Developers often target the high end of the market, but this project is aimed squarely at the lower-income bracket. Helping Belco identify the right partners for this project is expected to attract more developers to Kenya and other parts of Africa to help meet rising demand for housing.”

 IFC‘s engagement with Belco will help Kenya support its rapidly growing and urbanizing population by increasing access to affordable housing. The problem is similar across most of Africa, where population growth and demand for quality housing are combining to outstrip supply.  We are pleased to partner with a company such as Belco that is committed to contributing to solving this challenge,” said Emmanuel Nyirinkindi, IFC‘s Director for Transaction Advisory Services.

 IFC’s partnership with Belco is part of its broader strategy to support better access to affordable housing in Kenya.

In 2020, IFC invested $2 million in equity in the Kenya Mortgage Refinance Company (KMRC) to help increase access to affordable mortgages and support home ownership in the country.

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