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Kenya hailed as African countries urged to toughen laws on FGM

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Millions of
girls in Africa are at risk of female genital mutilation because
their governments are failing to enforce laws banning the
internationally condemned practice, campaigners said on
Thursday.

Six countries which are home to 16 million girls – Chad,
Liberia, Mali, Sierra Leone, Somalia and Sudan – still do not
even criminalise FGM, according to a major report examining laws
in the 28 African countries where the tradition is endemic.

“These countries are failing to protect their girls and
women,” said Ann-Marie Wilson, executive director of campaign
group 28 Too Many, which worked with 125 lawyers around the
world to compile the study, the largest of its kind.

“FGM is always traumatic and has a life-long impact. A law
sends a strong message from the top that this is unacceptable.”

World leaders have pledged to end the practice – which
involves the partial or total removal of the external genitalia
and affects 200 million girls and women – under global
development goals agreed in 2015.

But laws in the 22 countries which have banned FGM are
mostly inadequate and seldom enforced, campaigners said, adding
that prosecutions were rare and penalties too light to act as a
deterrent.

“Most laws are not tough enough. There are huge gaps,” said
Wilson.

Many communities that practice FGM see it as crucial for a
woman’s social status and a pre-requisite for marriage, but the
ritual can cause serious physical and psychological harm.

The report’s authors estimate 55 million girls in Africa
under the age of 15 have undergone FGM or are at risk. Half live
in just three countries – Egypt, Ethiopia and Nigeria – all of
which have banned it.

Only two countries, Kenya and Uganda, have robust
legislation, according to the report, which was facilitated by
TrustLaw, the Thomson Reuters Foundation’s legal pro bono
service.

It highlights concern that most laws fail to address the
growing trend for health professionals to carry out FGM. This is
particularly common in Egypt, where there have been several high
profile cases of girls dying after being cut at clinics.

Another trend is for parents in countries where FGM is
illegal to take girls across national borders to be cut, for
instance from Burkina Faso to Mali.

The report urged all countries to criminalise “medicalised
FGM” and cross-border FGM.

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It also sets out a model FGM law which could be adapted to
different country’s legal and social environments.

But campaigners said laws could not help end the practice
unless they were properly enforced and accompanied by strong
initiatives to change attitudes. Girls who opt not to be cut are
often abused and ostracised by their communities.

The report recommended countries follow Kenya and Uganda’s
example by making it a crime to discriminate against or threaten
uncut girls.

Some facts about FGM

– FGM dates back over 2,000 years. It is practised across
many cultures and religions.

– An estimated 55 million girls in Africa under the age of
15 have undergone FGM or are at risk.

– Somalia has the world’s highest FGM prevalence (98 percent
of women have been cut), followed by Guinea, Djibouti, Mali and
Sierra Leone.

– 22 of the 28 countries in Africa where FGM is endemic have
legislation criminalising FGM, although enforcement is generally
weak and prosecutions rare.

– Half of all girls who have undergone FGM or are at risk
live in three countries – Egypt, Ethiopia and Nigeria – all of
which have laws against FGM.

– Chad, Liberia, Mali, Sierra Leone, Somalia and Sudan,
which are home to 16 million girls, have no law, meaning FGM is
still effectively legal.

– All these countries apart from Sierra Leone have either
drafted legislation or indicated they intend to pass a law.

– Fines set out in laws vary from the equivalent of about $5
to $3,600.

– Prison sentences range from a minimum of two months to a
maximum of 20 years (Cameroon). But sentences so far have been
lenient and frequently suspended.

– There is an increasing trend for FGM to be carried out by
health professionals rather than traditional cutters,
particularly in Egypt, Guinea, Kenya, Nigeria and Sudan.

– Of these countries, only Guinea and Kenya specifically
criminalise medicalised FGM.

– Somalia is unusual in that its constitution prohibits FGM,
but it has no law criminalising the practice.

– It recently announced its first prosecution for FGM after
a 10-year-old girl died from the procedure.

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Public officers above 58 years and with pre-existing conditions told to work from home: The Standard

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Head of Public Service Joseph Kinyua. [File, Standard]
In a document from Head of Public Service, Joseph Kinyua new measure have been outlined to curb the bulging spread of covid-19. Public officers with underlying health conditions and those who are over 58 years -a group that experts have classified as most vulnerable to the virus will be required to execute their duties from home.

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However, the new rule excluded personnel in the security sector and other critical and essential services.
“All State and public officers with pre-existing medical conditions and/or aged 58 years and above serving in CSG5 (job group ‘S’) and below or their equivalents should forthwith work from home,” read the document,” read the document.
To ensure that those working from home deliver, the Public Service directs that there be clear assignments and targets tasked for the period designated and a clear reporting line to monitor and review work done.
SEE ALSO: Thinking inside the cardboard box for post-lockdown work stations
Others measures outlined in the document include the provision of personal protective equipment to staff, provision of sanitizers and access to washing facilities fitted with soap and water, temperature checks for all staff and clients entering public offices regular fumigation of office premises and vehicles and minimizing of visitors except by prior appointments.
Officers who contract the virus and come back to work after quarantine or isolation period will be required to follow specific directives such as obtaining clearance from the isolation facility certified by the designated persons indicating that the public officer is free and safe from Covid-19. The officer will also be required to stay away from duty station for a period of seven days after the date of medical certification.
“The period a public officer spends in quarantine or isolation due to Covid-19, shall be treated as sick leave and shall be subject to the Provisions of the Human Resource Policy and procedures Manual for the Public Service(May,2016),” read the document.
The service has also made discrimination and stigmatization an offence and has guaranteed those affected with the virus to receive adequate access to mental health and psychosocial supported offered by the government.
The new directives targeting the Public Services come at a time when Kenyans have increasingly shown lack of strict observance of the issued guidelines even as the number of positive Covid-19 cases skyrocket to 13,771 and leaving 238 dead as of today.
SEE ALSO: Working from home could be blessing in disguise for persons with disabilities
Principal Secretaries/ Accounting Officers will be personally responsible for effective enforcement and compliance of the current guidelines and any future directives issued to mitigate the spread of Covid-19.

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Uhuru convenes summit to review rising Covid-19 cases: The Standard

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President Uhuru Kenyatta (pictured) will on Friday, July 24, meet governors following the ballooning Covid-19 infections in recent days.
The session will among other things review the efficacy of the containment measures in place and review the impact of the phased easing of the restrictions, State House said in a statement.
This story is being updated.
SEE ALSO: Sakaja resigns from Covid-19 Senate committee, in court tomorrow

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Drastic life changes affecting mental health

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Kenya has been ranked 6th among African countries with the highest cases of depression, this has triggered anxiety by the World Health Organization (WHO), with 1.9 million people suffering from a form of mental conditions such as depression, substance abuse.

KBC Radio_KICD Timetable

Globally, one in four people is affected by mental or neurological disorders at some point in their lives, this is according to the WHO.

Currently, around 450 million people suffer from such conditions, placing mental disorders among the leading causes of ill-health and disability worldwide.

The pandemic has also been known to cause significant distress, mostly affecting the state of one’s mental well-being.

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With the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic attributed to the novel Coronavirus disease, millions have been affected globally with over 14 million infections and half a million deaths as to date. This has brought about uncertainty coupled with difficult situations, including job loss and the risk of contracting the deadly virus.

In Kenya the first Coronavirus case was reported in Nairobi by the Ministry of Health on the 12th March 2020.  It was not until the government put in place precautionary measures including a curfew and lockdown (the latter having being lifted) due to an increase in the number of infections that people began feeling its effect both economically and socially.

A study by Dr. Habil Otanga,  a Lecturer at the University of Nairobi, Department of Psychology says  that such measures can in turn lead to surge in mental related illnesses including depression, feelings of confusion, anger and fear, and even substance abuse. It also brings with it a sense of boredom, loneliness, anger, isolation and frustration. In the post-quarantine/isolation period, loss of employment due to the depressed economy and the stigma around the disease are also likely to lead to mental health problems.

The Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) states that at least 300,000 Kenyans have lost their jobs due to the Coronavirus pandemic between the period of January and March this year.

KNBC noted that the number of employed Kenyans plunged to 17.8 million as of March from 18.1 million people as compared to last year in December. The Report states that the unemployment rate in Kenya stands at 13.7 per cent as of March this year while it stood 12.4 per cent in December 2019.

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Mama T (not her real name) is among millions of Kenyans who have been affected by containment measures put in place to curb the spread of the virus, either by losing their source of income or having to work under tough guidelines put in place by the MOH.

As young mother and an event organizer, she has found it hard to explain to her children why they cannot go to school or socialize freely with their peers as before.

“Sometimes it gets difficult as they do not understand what is happening due to their age, this at times becomes hard on me as they often think I am punishing them,”

Her contract was put on hold as no event or public gatherings can take place due to the pandemic. This has brought other challenges along with it, as she has to find means of fending for her family expenditures that including rent and food.

“I often wake up in the middle of the night with worries about my next move as the pandemic does not exhibit any signs of easing up,” she says. She adds that she has been forced to sort for manual jobs to keep her family afloat.

Ms. Mary Wahome, a Counseling Psychologist and Programs Director at ‘The Reason to Hope,’ in Karen, Nairobi says that such kind of drastic life changes have an adverse effect on one’s mental status including their family members and if not addressed early can lead to depression among other issues.

“We have had cases of people indulging in substance abuse to deal with the uncertainty and stress brought about by the pandemic, this in turn leads to dependence and also domestic abuse,”

Sam Njoroge , a waiter at a local hotel in Kiambu, has found himself indulging in substance abuse due to challenges he is facing after the hotel he was working in was closed down as it has not yet met the standards required by the MOH to open.

“My day starts at 6am where I go to a local pub, here I can get a drink for as little as Sh30, It makes me suppress the frustration I feel.” he says.

Sam is among the many who have found themselves in the same predicament and resulted to substance abuse finding ways to beat strict measures put in place by the government on the sale of alcohol so as to cope.

Mary says, situations like Sam’s are dangerous and if not addressed early can lead to serious complications, including addiction and dependency, violent behavior and also early death due to health complications.

She has, however, lauded the government for encouraging mental wellness and also launching the Psychological First Aid (PFA) guide in the wake of the virus putting emphasis on the three action principal of look, listen and link. “When we follow this it will be easy to identify an individual in distress and also offer assistance”.

Mary has urged anyone feeling the weight of the virus taking a toll on them not to hesitate but look for someone to talk to.

“You should not only seek help from a specialist but also talk to a friend, let them know what you are undergoing and how you feel, this will help ease their emotional stress and also find ways of dealing with the situation they are facing,” She added

Mary continued to stress on the need to perform frequent body exercises as a form of stress relief, reading and also taking advantage of this unfortunate COVID-19 period to engage in hobbies and talent development.

“Let people take this as an opportunity to kip fit, get in touch with one’s inner self and  also engage in   reading that would  help expand their knowledge.

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