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KAMAU: Hopelessness and humour don’t normally go together





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Francis Imbuga, in his playBetrayal in the City, has addressed many pertinent issues including betrayal, corruption and oppression. This article will focus on disillusionment and a sample essay.

As the citizens fought for independence, they had very high hopes their lives will change for the better with the independence. They looked forward to freedom and development in the land and a better future for their children.

However, when they gain independence, they are highly disappointed with the leaders, who take advantage of their positions to oppress and deny their subjects their rights.

When Adika is shot down during the student’s protest, his parents prepare a shaving ceremony in accordance to their traditions. Boss, the leader can hear none of this and he sends Mulili, his right hand man and Jere, one of the police officers to go and stop the ceremony in ‘the interest of peace.’

When the two get to the graveside, Jere tries to convince Mulili sympathise with the old couple and allow them to conduct the harmless ceremony but he refuses. The couple, who has already lost has lost hope of ever recovering from the death of their son, gets more disappointed when they are denied their right to go on with the ceremony.

Nina says that their hope is buried in their son’s grave.

Citizens are not allowed the freedom of expression. When Jere differs with Mulili on the issue of the ceremony, he is arrested and imprisoned the following day. In the prison, he meets Mosese, who is also imprisoned for expressing his opinion during Adika’s burial, where the government had put very strict and unreasonable directives.

The service was to take not more than ten minutes, the coffin was not to be carried by the students and there was to be no weeping in public. He was arrested and accused of being in possession of opium which was actually planted on his car by Nicodemo, one of the government officials.

The two express their disappointment and hopelessness at the way the government is treating the subjects. Mosese says that it is better while they waited for independence because, now, there is nothing to look forward to. He goes ahead and says that they have killed their past and are busy killing their future.

Jere comments that the outside of the cell is the inside of another one, meaning that even those outside the cells are also not free because they don’t have any freedom to enjoy their lights as citizens. The two are a representative of the citizens of Kafira, who are so oppressed that they have reached their breaking point.

‘Francis Imbuga uses humour to address very serious issues.’ Write an essay to show the validity of this statement drawing our illustrations from the playBetrayal in the City.


Some very serious issues that affect Kafira are brought out in hilarious way. These include corruption, dictatorship, oppression and incompetence.

Corruption by the leaders in Kafira is alive and it is exposed in a humorous way. Mulili, one of the government officials exposes his corrupt nature through broken English. He attends the meeting late and says he is very ‘sorrowful’ for being late but goes on to say ‘that it is better never than late.’

While explaining why he is late for the meeting, he uses broken English which makes the explanation hilarious. This include such statements as; … … ‘yesterday they termination my tender,…. they gives it to unknown small man. … … you knows who is speaking? … … what happen to Mulili tender for supply milk?’ this shows both Mulili and Boss use their influence to give Mulili the milk tender when he does not deserve it.

Tumbo tells Jusper that his prize winning play will be performed for the visitor. This confuses Jusper because he has not written any play. He explains to him that a sum of money has been allocated for a play writing competition but says that there is no need for the completion if they already know what play ought to be produced.

This exposes Tumbo’s corrupt and incompetence as a leader. His ignorance and incompetence as a leader is further seen when he confuses Soyinka for a prime minister of a country he cannot remember.

Oppression and injustice is also brought out in a humorous way. When trying to stop the old couple from performing the shaving ceremony, Mulili again uses broken English which leaves the readers in stitches.

When Doga tells him that a shaving ceremony is no child’s play, he misinterprets it and replies; …. ‘who you call child, eeh? Jere, you tell him what I does with stubborn old men’s.’

The leader’s dictatorship on his subjects is laughable. Boss intends to rape Regina, who escapes through the window and he detains his wife, Mercedes in the palace cell to teach her a lesson for complaining about the incidence.

Mulili also suggests that everyone including the schoolchildren to line up along the road to welcome the visiting leader. The directives about how the funeral ceremony should be conducted are not only ridiculous but also funny.

It is evident that the playwright has employed humour not only to make the play interesting but also to address important issues that affect the society.

The writer is a teacher at Alliance Girls High School.


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Public officers above 58 years and with pre-existing conditions told to work from home: The Standard




Head of Public Service Joseph Kinyua. [File, Standard]
In a document from Head of Public Service, Joseph Kinyua new measure have been outlined to curb the bulging spread of covid-19. Public officers with underlying health conditions and those who are over 58 years -a group that experts have classified as most vulnerable to the virus will be required to execute their duties from home.


However, the new rule excluded personnel in the security sector and other critical and essential services.
“All State and public officers with pre-existing medical conditions and/or aged 58 years and above serving in CSG5 (job group ‘S’) and below or their equivalents should forthwith work from home,” read the document,” read the document.
To ensure that those working from home deliver, the Public Service directs that there be clear assignments and targets tasked for the period designated and a clear reporting line to monitor and review work done.
SEE ALSO: Thinking inside the cardboard box for post-lockdown work stations
Others measures outlined in the document include the provision of personal protective equipment to staff, provision of sanitizers and access to washing facilities fitted with soap and water, temperature checks for all staff and clients entering public offices regular fumigation of office premises and vehicles and minimizing of visitors except by prior appointments.
Officers who contract the virus and come back to work after quarantine or isolation period will be required to follow specific directives such as obtaining clearance from the isolation facility certified by the designated persons indicating that the public officer is free and safe from Covid-19. The officer will also be required to stay away from duty station for a period of seven days after the date of medical certification.
“The period a public officer spends in quarantine or isolation due to Covid-19, shall be treated as sick leave and shall be subject to the Provisions of the Human Resource Policy and procedures Manual for the Public Service(May,2016),” read the document.
The service has also made discrimination and stigmatization an offence and has guaranteed those affected with the virus to receive adequate access to mental health and psychosocial supported offered by the government.
The new directives targeting the Public Services come at a time when Kenyans have increasingly shown lack of strict observance of the issued guidelines even as the number of positive Covid-19 cases skyrocket to 13,771 and leaving 238 dead as of today.
SEE ALSO: Working from home could be blessing in disguise for persons with disabilities
Principal Secretaries/ Accounting Officers will be personally responsible for effective enforcement and compliance of the current guidelines and any future directives issued to mitigate the spread of Covid-19.

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Uhuru convenes summit to review rising Covid-19 cases: The Standard




President Uhuru Kenyatta (pictured) will on Friday, July 24, meet governors following the ballooning Covid-19 infections in recent days.
The session will among other things review the efficacy of the containment measures in place and review the impact of the phased easing of the restrictions, State House said in a statement.
This story is being updated.
SEE ALSO: Sakaja resigns from Covid-19 Senate committee, in court tomorrow

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Drastic life changes affecting mental health




Kenya has been ranked 6th among African countries with the highest cases of depression, this has triggered anxiety by the World Health Organization (WHO), with 1.9 million people suffering from a form of mental conditions such as depression, substance abuse.

KBC Radio_KICD Timetable

Globally, one in four people is affected by mental or neurological disorders at some point in their lives, this is according to the WHO.

Currently, around 450 million people suffer from such conditions, placing mental disorders among the leading causes of ill-health and disability worldwide.

The pandemic has also been known to cause significant distress, mostly affecting the state of one’s mental well-being.

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With the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic attributed to the novel Coronavirus disease, millions have been affected globally with over 14 million infections and half a million deaths as to date. This has brought about uncertainty coupled with difficult situations, including job loss and the risk of contracting the deadly virus.

In Kenya the first Coronavirus case was reported in Nairobi by the Ministry of Health on the 12th March 2020.  It was not until the government put in place precautionary measures including a curfew and lockdown (the latter having being lifted) due to an increase in the number of infections that people began feeling its effect both economically and socially.

A study by Dr. Habil Otanga,  a Lecturer at the University of Nairobi, Department of Psychology says  that such measures can in turn lead to surge in mental related illnesses including depression, feelings of confusion, anger and fear, and even substance abuse. It also brings with it a sense of boredom, loneliness, anger, isolation and frustration. In the post-quarantine/isolation period, loss of employment due to the depressed economy and the stigma around the disease are also likely to lead to mental health problems.

The Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) states that at least 300,000 Kenyans have lost their jobs due to the Coronavirus pandemic between the period of January and March this year.

KNBC noted that the number of employed Kenyans plunged to 17.8 million as of March from 18.1 million people as compared to last year in December. The Report states that the unemployment rate in Kenya stands at 13.7 per cent as of March this year while it stood 12.4 per cent in December 2019.


Mama T (not her real name) is among millions of Kenyans who have been affected by containment measures put in place to curb the spread of the virus, either by losing their source of income or having to work under tough guidelines put in place by the MOH.

As young mother and an event organizer, she has found it hard to explain to her children why they cannot go to school or socialize freely with their peers as before.

“Sometimes it gets difficult as they do not understand what is happening due to their age, this at times becomes hard on me as they often think I am punishing them,”

Her contract was put on hold as no event or public gatherings can take place due to the pandemic. This has brought other challenges along with it, as she has to find means of fending for her family expenditures that including rent and food.

“I often wake up in the middle of the night with worries about my next move as the pandemic does not exhibit any signs of easing up,” she says. She adds that she has been forced to sort for manual jobs to keep her family afloat.

Ms. Mary Wahome, a Counseling Psychologist and Programs Director at ‘The Reason to Hope,’ in Karen, Nairobi says that such kind of drastic life changes have an adverse effect on one’s mental status including their family members and if not addressed early can lead to depression among other issues.

“We have had cases of people indulging in substance abuse to deal with the uncertainty and stress brought about by the pandemic, this in turn leads to dependence and also domestic abuse,”

Sam Njoroge , a waiter at a local hotel in Kiambu, has found himself indulging in substance abuse due to challenges he is facing after the hotel he was working in was closed down as it has not yet met the standards required by the MOH to open.

“My day starts at 6am where I go to a local pub, here I can get a drink for as little as Sh30, It makes me suppress the frustration I feel.” he says.

Sam is among the many who have found themselves in the same predicament and resulted to substance abuse finding ways to beat strict measures put in place by the government on the sale of alcohol so as to cope.

Mary says, situations like Sam’s are dangerous and if not addressed early can lead to serious complications, including addiction and dependency, violent behavior and also early death due to health complications.

She has, however, lauded the government for encouraging mental wellness and also launching the Psychological First Aid (PFA) guide in the wake of the virus putting emphasis on the three action principal of look, listen and link. “When we follow this it will be easy to identify an individual in distress and also offer assistance”.

Mary has urged anyone feeling the weight of the virus taking a toll on them not to hesitate but look for someone to talk to.

“You should not only seek help from a specialist but also talk to a friend, let them know what you are undergoing and how you feel, this will help ease their emotional stress and also find ways of dealing with the situation they are facing,” She added

Mary continued to stress on the need to perform frequent body exercises as a form of stress relief, reading and also taking advantage of this unfortunate COVID-19 period to engage in hobbies and talent development.

“Let people take this as an opportunity to kip fit, get in touch with one’s inner self and  also engage in   reading that would  help expand their knowledge.

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