Transnational criminal networks engaged in illegal wildlife trade have increasingly shifted the multibillion-dollar business to online platforms, including social media.
Physical markets have come under increased pressure from law enforcement agencies across Africa and Asia.
Africa is the main source for the illegal trophies, largely from elephants, rhinos, pangolins and tigers, while Asia is the main market.
However, few governments in both the source countries and the target markets have the capacity to detect and disrupt the business, and even fewer have the necessary laws to combat it, say international conservation and law enforcement agencies.
The result, officials of the bodies among them Interpol say, is that more wildlife and wildlife trophies are being trafficked from Africa to Asia each year, endangering the threatened species, in a trade that is becoming increasingly hard to detect.
“The Internet has provided traffickers and traders with greater visibility, enabled them to reach a larger pool of consumers of illegal wildlife products and increased opportunities for privacy,” said Simone Haysom, senior crime analyst of the Geneva-based Global Initiative Against Transnational Organised Crime.
The increased use of the Internet facilitates easier and faster exchange of information between middlemen, retailers and consumers, she said.
“It may all start with a simple photo of an adorable animal posted on a Facebook page, but this seemingly innocent post will bring together people with common interests including enthusiasts and collectors,” the official told a recent media workshop in Bangkok, Thailand.
According to Riccardo Forrester, a crime analyst at the United States Agency for International Development (USAid)- Wildlife Asia, online trading in illegal wildlife cushions the gangs against raids by law enforcers and makes it easier to reach wider global markets.
“It also makes a lot of financial sense because trading online helps one avoid taxation and any other form of regulation,” he said.
Salvatore Amato, a law enforcement specialist at USAid -Wildlife Asia, said that wildlife crime must be treated as a crime and not as a conservation issue.
“A holistic approach is needed to end the illicit trade that threatens the survival of iconic African species,” said Mr Amato.
“Such an approach will not involve a blame-game between African and Asian countries, but build enforcement capacity both at the source and the market.”
Marcos Mileo Brasil, a global forestry crime intelligence analyst at Interpol said that the enactment of relevant laws would disrupt the illicit online trade in the species.
“Some criminal groups are using international policies and laws to continue doing the business online, something that countries need to address urgently,” said Mr Brasil.
The global police organisation he said, was helping member countries build their capacity to disrupt and stop illicit markets in wildlife.
He said that Interpol through its “green crime” initiative was gathering intelligence on such crime, and sharing it with affected countries.
The initiative focuses on environmental crimes, by identifying trends, anticipating and deterring the commission of crime.
Criminals, Mr Brasil said, were now shifting to crypto currencies such as bitcoin as a medium of payment, making detection even harder.
“The use of crypto currencies and modern methods of payments such as blockchain technology helps to hide the identities of people involved in this business,” said Mr Brasil.
According to Sarah Stoner, a senior investigations manager at the Hague-based, Wildlife Justice Commission, the capacity to combat “digitally-enabled” wildlife crime remains low, and is partly enabled by limited intelligence sharing as well as corruption in some countries.
The numbers of endangered wildlife getting killed each in year in Africa remains unacceptably high, she said, giving the example of South Africa where 1,215 rhinos were killed in 2014, and 1,054 in 2016, up from only 13 in 2007. She called for increased vigilance in both physical and cyber markets.
“While the 2016 cases signalled a decrease from the highest figures reported in 2014 of 1,215 poached rhinos, the levels are still significant and leave little room for complacency,” said Ms Stoner.
An investigation targeting 51 suspects engaged in rhino horns trade between Vietnam and China conducted between January and August 2016, notes that 1,061 kgs of rhinos were traded during the period.
The horns were believed to have been the result of the killing of between 401 and 579 rhinos and were valued at an estimated $42.7 million.
An elaborate criminal enterprise was engaged in thriving business in the horns across the Vietnam-China border, where s Chinese customers are currently paying between $17,600 and $22,300 for a kilo of the horn, based on prices received from different sellers in May and August 2017.
“The most valuable part of the horn is the tip, which weighs, at most, approximately one kilo and is valued at between $25,000 and $30,000, due to its shape; the tip is considered to hold greater artistic value,” Ms Stoner disclosed.
Since its creation in 2015, the Wildlife Commission has been developing tools for fighting the trade, including gathering social media intelligence.
Public officers above 58 years and with pre-existing conditions told to work from home: The Standard
Head of Public Service Joseph Kinyua. [File, Standard]
In a document from Head of Public Service, Joseph Kinyua new measure have been outlined to curb the bulging spread of covid-19. Public officers with underlying health conditions and those who are over 58 years -a group that experts have classified as most vulnerable to the virus will be required to execute their duties from home.
However, the new rule excluded personnel in the security sector and other critical and essential services.
“All State and public officers with pre-existing medical conditions and/or aged 58 years and above serving in CSG5 (job group ‘S’) and below or their equivalents should forthwith work from home,” read the document,” read the document.
To ensure that those working from home deliver, the Public Service directs that there be clear assignments and targets tasked for the period designated and a clear reporting line to monitor and review work done.
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Others measures outlined in the document include the provision of personal protective equipment to staff, provision of sanitizers and access to washing facilities fitted with soap and water, temperature checks for all staff and clients entering public offices regular fumigation of office premises and vehicles and minimizing of visitors except by prior appointments.
Officers who contract the virus and come back to work after quarantine or isolation period will be required to follow specific directives such as obtaining clearance from the isolation facility certified by the designated persons indicating that the public officer is free and safe from Covid-19. The officer will also be required to stay away from duty station for a period of seven days after the date of medical certification.
“The period a public officer spends in quarantine or isolation due to Covid-19, shall be treated as sick leave and shall be subject to the Provisions of the Human Resource Policy and procedures Manual for the Public Service(May,2016),” read the document.
The service has also made discrimination and stigmatization an offence and has guaranteed those affected with the virus to receive adequate access to mental health and psychosocial supported offered by the government.
The new directives targeting the Public Services come at a time when Kenyans have increasingly shown lack of strict observance of the issued guidelines even as the number of positive Covid-19 cases skyrocket to 13,771 and leaving 238 dead as of today.
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Principal Secretaries/ Accounting Officers will be personally responsible for effective enforcement and compliance of the current guidelines and any future directives issued to mitigate the spread of Covid-19.
Uhuru convenes summit to review rising Covid-19 cases: The Standard
President Uhuru Kenyatta (pictured) will on Friday, July 24, meet governors following the ballooning Covid-19 infections in recent days.
The session will among other things review the efficacy of the containment measures in place and review the impact of the phased easing of the restrictions, State House said in a statement.
This story is being updated.
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Drastic life changes affecting mental health
Kenya has been ranked 6th among African countries with the highest cases of depression, this has triggered anxiety by the World Health Organization (WHO), with 1.9 million people suffering from a form of mental conditions such as depression, substance abuse.
Globally, one in four people is affected by mental or neurological disorders at some point in their lives, this is according to the WHO.
Currently, around 450 million people suffer from such conditions, placing mental disorders among the leading causes of ill-health and disability worldwide.
The pandemic has also been known to cause significant distress, mostly affecting the state of one’s mental well-being.
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With the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic attributed to the novel Coronavirus disease, millions have been affected globally with over 14 million infections and half a million deaths as to date. This has brought about uncertainty coupled with difficult situations, including job loss and the risk of contracting the deadly virus.
In Kenya the first Coronavirus case was reported in Nairobi by the Ministry of Health on the 12th March 2020. It was not until the government put in place precautionary measures including a curfew and lockdown (the latter having being lifted) due to an increase in the number of infections that people began feeling its effect both economically and socially.
A study by Dr. Habil Otanga, a Lecturer at the University of Nairobi, Department of Psychology says that such measures can in turn lead to surge in mental related illnesses including depression, feelings of confusion, anger and fear, and even substance abuse. It also brings with it a sense of boredom, loneliness, anger, isolation and frustration. In the post-quarantine/isolation period, loss of employment due to the depressed economy and the stigma around the disease are also likely to lead to mental health problems.
The Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) states that at least 300,000 Kenyans have lost their jobs due to the Coronavirus pandemic between the period of January and March this year.
KNBC noted that the number of employed Kenyans plunged to 17.8 million as of March from 18.1 million people as compared to last year in December. The Report states that the unemployment rate in Kenya stands at 13.7 per cent as of March this year while it stood 12.4 per cent in December 2019.
Mama T (not her real name) is among millions of Kenyans who have been affected by containment measures put in place to curb the spread of the virus, either by losing their source of income or having to work under tough guidelines put in place by the MOH.
As young mother and an event organizer, she has found it hard to explain to her children why they cannot go to school or socialize freely with their peers as before.
“Sometimes it gets difficult as they do not understand what is happening due to their age, this at times becomes hard on me as they often think I am punishing them,”
Her contract was put on hold as no event or public gatherings can take place due to the pandemic. This has brought other challenges along with it, as she has to find means of fending for her family expenditures that including rent and food.
“I often wake up in the middle of the night with worries about my next move as the pandemic does not exhibit any signs of easing up,” she says. She adds that she has been forced to sort for manual jobs to keep her family afloat.
Ms. Mary Wahome, a Counseling Psychologist and Programs Director at ‘The Reason to Hope,’ in Karen, Nairobi says that such kind of drastic life changes have an adverse effect on one’s mental status including their family members and if not addressed early can lead to depression among other issues.
“We have had cases of people indulging in substance abuse to deal with the uncertainty and stress brought about by the pandemic, this in turn leads to dependence and also domestic abuse,”
Sam Njoroge , a waiter at a local hotel in Kiambu, has found himself indulging in substance abuse due to challenges he is facing after the hotel he was working in was closed down as it has not yet met the standards required by the MOH to open.
“My day starts at 6am where I go to a local pub, here I can get a drink for as little as Sh30, It makes me suppress the frustration I feel.” he says.
Sam is among the many who have found themselves in the same predicament and resulted to substance abuse finding ways to beat strict measures put in place by the government on the sale of alcohol so as to cope.
Mary says, situations like Sam’s are dangerous and if not addressed early can lead to serious complications, including addiction and dependency, violent behavior and also early death due to health complications.
She has, however, lauded the government for encouraging mental wellness and also launching the Psychological First Aid (PFA) guide in the wake of the virus putting emphasis on the three action principal of look, listen and link. “When we follow this it will be easy to identify an individual in distress and also offer assistance”.
Mary has urged anyone feeling the weight of the virus taking a toll on them not to hesitate but look for someone to talk to.
“You should not only seek help from a specialist but also talk to a friend, let them know what you are undergoing and how you feel, this will help ease their emotional stress and also find ways of dealing with the situation they are facing,” She added
Mary continued to stress on the need to perform frequent body exercises as a form of stress relief, reading and also taking advantage of this unfortunate COVID-19 period to engage in hobbies and talent development.
“Let people take this as an opportunity to kip fit, get in touch with one’s inner self and also engage in reading that would help expand their knowledge.