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How to use distributive determiners in writing : The Standard

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For sometime, #babasbedroom has trended on social media. A by-election occasioned by the death of former Kibra Constituency Member of Parliament Ken Okoth attracted a number of candidates desirous of filling the void his demise created.
Quarrelsome National Super Alliance brothers, Orange Democratic Movement (ODM), Amani National Congress (ANC) and Ford-K, each fielded a candidate. Jubilee and a host of other nondescript parties joined the fray. It was a campaign full of bragging, invective and sterile threats.
But trust Raila Odinga to declare Kibra his ‘bedroom’. For about two decades, baba was Kibra (then known as Kibera) MP before joining the big league politics. Jubilee, but specifically Deputy President William Ruto, the ever positive thinking politician that he is, was not impressed by baba’s declaration and swore to kick baba out of his avowed bedroom.
In the end, Ruto was given such serious hiding he is still smarting from the welts left by baba’s political sjambok. After the political fight, ANC and Ford-K were left in a coma.
In this context, ‘hiding’ is used to show defeat in an endeavour. It is not related to the verb ‘hide’ (keeping out of sight). As for ANC, FORD-K and the smaller parties in the Kibra by-election, they were ‘on a hiding to nothing’. This phrase implies that they were unlikely to succeed in their endeavours.
Seemingly, neither party conducted research to gauge the chances it stood. Either they were carried away by the assumption baba had lost ground after the  March 9, 2018 handshake between him and President Uhuru Kenyatta, or they wanted to scatter their elder brother’s (ODM) votes. Smarting, on the other hand is not related to the adjective ‘smart’ (clever, clean or tidy). Smarting in this context means to feel ‘sharp stinging pain’.
That said; let us isolate the words ‘each’, ‘every’, ‘either’ and neither’ from the narrative above for today’s discussion. Collectively, these words are referred to as distributives. Distributives are basically determiners used to show how something is shared out among a group of people. The dictionary definition of determiner is; ‘a word that introduces a noun. It always comes before a noun, not after, and it also comes before any other adjectives used to describe the noun’.

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The determiner ‘each’ makes reference to an individual or thing in a group. Although this determiner can be used with common nouns, it cannot be used with proper nouns. Proper nouns are names given to people, things or objects. For example, ‘man’, ‘boy’, ‘mountain’, ‘country’, among others, are known as common nouns.
However, when they are given names, ‘John’, ‘Kilimanjaro’, ‘Kenya’, et cetera, these names are referred to as proper nouns. As such, while it is grammatical to say or write ‘Each country on earth owes the World Bank some money’, it would be ungrammatical to write; ‘Each Kenya/Uganda owes the World Bank some money. Note too, that ‘World Bank ‘is a proper noun.
Like the determiner ‘each’, ‘every’ should not be used with proper nouns. You cannot say or write; ‘Every Nairobi (proper noun)’, but you can write or say; ‘Every town, city (common nouns)’. The determiner ‘every’ refers to all the people or things in a group. For example, “Every contestant in the Kibra by-election stood an equal chance of winning or getting elected”.
Where things are concerned, ‘every’ can be used together with ordinal numbers. For example, “Judging from the number of votes the ODM candidate in Kibra got, every second person in a voting queue must have voted for him”. This means that the second, fourth, sixth, eighth, tenth, twelfth person, et cetera, voted for the ODM candidate. When numbers are written as one, two, three et cetera, they are cardinal numbers. When the numbers end in ‘th’, they are known as ordinal numbers. The exception is first (one), second (two) and third (three).
The determiner ‘either’ is used in reference to one of two things or people. If we use ANC and Ford-K’s losses in the Kibra by-election as examples, we could say; “Voters did not show much confidence in either party”.  The determiner ‘neither’ is employed to denote exclusion where two people are concerned. For example, with ANC and FORD-K, we could say; “Neither party stood a chance from the outset”.
Netizens made informative, sometimes derogatory remarks in the #babasbedroom discourse. Because twitter has limited space, netizens use shortened words to express themselves. However, the shortened words have intruded on English grammar. Always use orthodox spellings in formal communication. Don’t write’ thru’ for ‘through’, ‘pliz’ or ‘pleez’ for please.
Mr Chagema is a correspondent for The Standard. [email protected]


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ONYANGO-OBBO: Forget Covid-19; think about camels and cannabis right now

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By CHARLES ONYANGO-OBBO

After five months of restrictions to save us from the new coronavirus, lives have been saved, but many have been infected and died too. But with no cure or vaccine, we are actually surrendering because the personal and economic pain is unbearable. Rulers everywhere are reopening economies, and we are saying “kama mbaya mbaya” — let us go and die from the virus.

South Africa’s President Cyril Ramaphosa has been ruthlessly realistic as people go back to work and begin mingling, albeit with masks on. He has said infection numbers are “expected to increase exponentially.”

We have also spent a lot of time on how the virus will change the world. My suspicion is that the big changes will not be the obvious ones — like a dramatic shift to contactless payments, migration by those who can afford to less-contracted suburbs further out or a return to the drive-in cinema.

The signs of big changes are often hidden in plain view, and we tend to brush them off. So, I did an about-turn on a story in late April, that said Saudi Arabia would temporarily lift the ban on livestock imports and buy “600,000 sheep and 100,000 camels from Somalia in the next 30 days”.

The Gulf countries buy many sheep, cattle and camels from Somalia. It is the one trade that has largely been immune even to the civil war. By 2014, when Somalia was nowhere near the half-stable country it is, it still exported 4.6 million goats and sheep, 340,000 cattle and 77,000 camels worth $360 million (Sh36 billion) to the Gulf. These regional countries that laugh at Somalia as a failed state don’t hold a candle to it.

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On reading of Saudi Arabia lifting the ban, I got interested. But although camels got a bad rap when they were thought to be a source of the human infection with the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), they are “well-known hosts to harbour different strains of the coronaviruses and were shown to produce effective neutralising antibodies to these viruses”.

Although it isn’t clear if it’s the reason Saudi Arabia lifted the ban, if that turns out to be a thing, the camel could emerge as the wonder beast out of this crisis. And, of course, Somalia, which has a leg up on rearing the animals, would be in for some big dough and could, well, finally rise from the ashes on the back of camels. Before long, many East African ranchers could be camel keepers.

‘Weed revolution’

That, though, might not be as dramatic as the revolution that would be wrought by cannabis, or “weed” as the good people on the street call it. A lot of good things have been said about cannabis and Covid-19. Some people swear it is a cure but, like claims about other leaves and herbs, there is no scientific proof.

A South African publication, City Press, reported this week that a group of local researchers are looking into the possible role cannabis can play in curing the coronavirus.

The Vaal University of Technology (VUT) and private firm Cannabisiness, said the report, hope to find out if the plant’s anti-inflammatory properties can alleviate the body’s inflammatory response to Covid-19. It notes that cannabis plants, as many know, have been used in traditional medicine in Africa for millenniums.

Last year, the duo partnered on combating inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis sufferers using cannabidiol, a chemical found in cannabis.

In a few African countries, especially in the south, the use of “weed” has been legalised and licences are being handed out to grow it for export.

How could a breakthrough be revolutionary? According to GBNews, despite extensive global prohibition, with only just over 50 countries having legalised some form of medical cannabis, and six have legalised cannabis for recreational use by adults, more than 263 million people consume cannabis every year.

There are an estimated 1.2 billion people suffering from medical conditions for which cannabis has shown to be of therapeutic value, it says. Adoption of medical cannabis treatment, by even a small proportion of that population, would create a massive market. And there is serious money. The total global cannabis market (regulated and illicit) is about $344 billion — nearly equal to the global smartphone market. Africa is in the top five regional markets for cannabis, worth $37.3 billion.

A coronavirus-fuelled blow-up of cannabis could create unstoppable demand for legalisation, and smart governments would be quick to cash in. Our prohibition-based moral order would be overthrown. Massive fortunes could be made by farmers, who would ditch most other crops (the teas and maize) and become ‘weedpreneurs’.

Life would be extremely interesting, and nothing like we have today.

Mr Onyango-Obbo is a journalist, writer and curator of the Wall of Great Africans. @cobbo3

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ADHERE: Will China be Africa’s trusted partner?

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By ADHERE CAVINCE

Not surprisingly, many of the apocalyptic projections of the impact of Covid-19 on Africa are yet to materialise. According to the Africa Centres for Disease Control, the continent had by May 30 registered 3,922 Covid-19 deaths and 135,292 cases. The global toll was 360,000 and case tally six million.

Africa’s young population, ecological dynamics, experience dealing with epidemics and mitigation measures by governments are seen as behind its better showing in managing the disease. But this could just be end of the good news.

With no vaccine in sight and World Health Organization indicating that the coronavirus is here to stay, the pandemic continues to be an existential threat to humanity. Yet, even in the face of such grim realities, the global consensus to wrest it is elusive — President Donald Trump’s decision to pull the United States out of the WHO the latest indication that an international bipartisan approach to contain the pandemic is hard to realise.

Although Africa has performed reasonably well in saving lives so far, the same cannot be said of livelihoods. Many countries are reeling under the yolk of economic hardships. Firms are closing down. Millions of jobs are lost every week. A Kenya National Bureau of Statistics survey report indicates that nearly a third of the population could not pay their house rent in April. Women constitute 51 per cent of the most afflicted.

As the US abandons its seat at the WHO high table, China is emphasising functional multilateralism; an idea that an overwhelming majority of the countries also subscribe to. In his address to the 73rd World Health Assembly, the Chinese leader, Xi Jinping, pledged $2 billion (Sh200 billion) to the WHO and called for solidarity to build a healthy global community.

Should China succeed in developing a Covid-19 vaccine, President Xi added, it will be both accessible and affordable, as a global public good. This view contrasts with that of Washington, where President Trump stated that the US will develop a vaccine only for the American people.

President Xi has also committed to pair 30 leading African hospitals with their Chinese counterparts and expedite construction of an Africa CDC headquarters.

The work of post-Covid-19 economic reconstruction will be a steep climb for emerging economies, especially those reliant on commodity exports. Many of the traditional partners of Africa in Europe are yet to climb out of the pandemic affliction, leaving them little room to extend a helping hand to the continent. With the US indifference towards Africa, only Beijing provides some dependable basis of long-term and pragmatic relations with the continent.

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Drawing from nearly two decades of sustained economic cooperation between China and Africa, surveys over the past five years indicate increased acceptability of Beijing as a strong development partner.

A 2016 Afrobarometer survey, for example, revealed that 76 per cent of Kenyans welcomed China’s economic cooperation with Nairobi. Two years later, an Ipsos poll in Kenya placed China ahead of the US, for the first time, as a development partner. Then in 2019 a Pew Research showed 68 per cent of Kenyans believed that a stronger Chinese economy is good for Nairobi.

But it will take serious efforts to translate this into productive economic cooperative arrangements that can be a force to pull Africa out of the Covid-19 conundrum. To promote industrialisation that can create the much-needed jobs and wealth, African countries should implement investor-friendly policies to tap from the burgeoning Chinese private sector.

Secondly, official development assistance from Beijing should be invested in productive sectors that create value for the majority and not a tiny elite.

Thirdly, according to statistics from the General Administration of Customs of China, the volume of trade between China and Africa was $204.19 billion in 2018. Africa’s exports to China was, however, $99.28 billion, a 70 per cent drop in surplus compared to 2017. Interestingly, 96 per cent of all African exports to China are oil, minerals and timber.

Although the surplus looks good continentally, at the country level, the prospects are totally different. Trade volume between Nairobi and China in 2017 was valued at $4 billion, yet Kenya only exported goods worth $500 million to Beijing that time.

China should, therefore, open up its vast market of 1.5 billion people to more African products. Recent sanitary and phytosanitary agreements signed between Kenya and China is a good example of efforts to promote the entry of African agricultural produce into the Chinese market.

Mr Cavince is a PhD student of International Relations. [email protected] @Cavinceworld

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NDINDA: Still hopeful despite silence on repatriation plans 

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By DIANA NDINDA

One week after we were informed that the repatriation process has been initiated, we don’t have much to ride on. We are still waiting for the results of what must be hectic coordination between the relevant authorities and Kenya Airways.

By now, I have learnt to manage my expectations. Between the frustration that comes with endless waiting, the excitement that rears its head when some progress is made and what seems like a slow process towards the end, I have learnt to be patient.

We anticipated that by this first week of June we would be preparing to travel, but that no longer looks like the case. I decide to email Kenya Airways about rebooking my return ticket.

The person who responds to my email rebooks me on a flight for June 17, the rider being that my travelling on that day will depend on the airspace reopening.

It is clear that all I can do now is wait for June 8, the date that Kenya Airways is set to resume passenger flights. Or perhaps I will be lucky and the repatriation flight will come through sooner.

Meanwhile, I need some money to buy meals and water, so I decide to take an okada (motorbike taxi) to the ATM instead of asking my friend Lanre to travel the 20 kilometres from his home to my hotel to take me.

The first bank’s ATM does not recognise my card, so I decide to move to another bank. At the second bank, I find out that the machines are being serviced, but since I am second in the queue, I decide to wait, sure that it will not be too long a wait.

After more than 20 minutes of queuing, people crowd around the two machines angrily protesting how long it is taking to fix them.

Some of them are wearing masks while others have them on their chins, which beats the purpose.

But since it is now mandatory in Nigeria to wear a  face mask when out in public, many feel obligated to have one on show.

The queue keeps growing, and after a while, it becomes a big crowd of frustrated people anxious to withdraw money.

They are shouting and gesturing animatedly and everyone seems to have an idea about how the problem can be solved. There’s even a commotion as one of the male customers tries to control the surging crowd, and it looks like it might soon degenerate into a fist fight.

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Eventually, I decide that this is not a safe space to be in, considering that there is no longer any social distancing to talk of.

Thankfully, the okada rider has been patiently waiting for me. I hop on  as we decide to try the ATMs at Maryland Mall, about five kilometres away.

The motorbike would not have been my chosen mode of transport for such a long distance because just like their counterparts in Kenya, the riders don’t pay much attention to traffic rules and so one does not feel very safe. But since I have no option, the okada it is.

At the mall, I get an ATM that is working and withdraw money that will tide me over for the next few days.

It is about 4pm when we start the journey back to the hotel. An errand that should have taken 20 minutes has taken one and a half hours.

By the time I alight from the motorbike, I am sweating profusely, and my clothes are sticking on my back like glue. As for my mouth and throat, they feel as if they are lined with cardboard – I am parched, and feel as if I could drink a gallon of water in one go.

I pay the rider and add a little extra in gratitude for all the waiting he had to endure, and then I walk to my room as fast as the sweltering heat allows. I plan to take a cooling shower before frying some eggs for supper.

Ms Ndinda is a research manager with Transform Research Africa Ltd. She is stranded in Nigeria, where she has been since March 21.                         

TOMORROW: My days revolve around sleeping and waking, during which I spend my time on social media, monitoring what is happening here in Nigeria and back home in Kenya. Prayer, messages, and sometimes calls from family and friends are what keep me going as I wait to finally travel home.

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