Chinese contractors have taken centrestage in the implementation of infrastructure projects in Africa, as funding by the continent’s development finance institutions shrinks.
However, investment in social sectors such as health and education remained low, according to the report Africa Construction Trends (2018) by consultancy firm Deloitte.
The report, released last week, shows that East African governments fund only 12.9 per cent of their projects in the region, with China and international financiers funding 25.9 per cent and 20.1 per cent respectively.
“The significant role played by China in advancing funding for infrastructure development in East Africa speaks to the importance of the region as a touch-point for China’s Belt and Road Initiative,” the report says.
The initiative is Beijing’s multibillion-dollar Marshall Plan that seeks to strengthen Chinese global dominance through investment in infrastructure around the world worth more than $1 trillion.
President Xi Jinping has a grand plan to connect Asia, Africa and Europe through mega projects. The initiative involves infrastructure development and investments.
From Southeast Asia to Eastern Europe and Africa, the initiative connects 71 countries that account for half the world’s population and a quarter of global GDP.
So far Chinese companies have secured more than $340 billion in construction contracts along the Belt and Road.
The initiative was launched by President Xi Jinping in September and October 2013 during visits to Kazakhstan and Indonesia.
According to the report, 33 per cent of the 482 projects tracked this year were built by Chinese companies and 24 per cent by local contractors.
However, large-scale investment in social development and education projects remained low, at 0.1 per cent each across the continent.
The majority of the infrastructure projects were in the transport sector (38.6 per cent), followed by real estate (22.8 per cent), energy and power (13.7 per cent) and shipping and ports (7.5 per cent).
According to the report, the transport sector, valued at $107 billion, represented 22.7 per cent of the continent’s total spend on large construction projects, with governments and China being the two significant funders of the sector.
The report notes that although African governments continue to fund the largest share of projects, particularly in the transport sector, the Chinese influence on the continent is increasing with 19 per cent of the projects being funded by China (close to one in every five projects) followed by international development finance institutions with (13.7 per cent), and private domestic firms with (10.6 per cent).
China is the most prolific (and single country) builder of projects, constructing 160 (33.2 per cent) projects this year, up from 85 last year.
The majority of Chinese construction also falls within the transport sector.
Other single-country builders include Italian firms, although they are some way behind with 21 projects (4.4 per cent), followed by French firms with 15 projects (3.1 per cent).
East Africa has the largest number of projects at 139 (29 per cent) and North Africa accounted for the largest share of projects in terms of value, at 31.5 per cent ($148.3 billion).
Egypt has the most projects at 46 (9.5 per cent of projects on the continent) as well as the most projects by value at $79.2billion (17 per cent of the continent’s value), more than South Africa and Nigeria.
According to the report, African governments own 364 projects (75.5 per cent), followed by private domestic firms (9.3 per cent).
Firms headquartered in China own 3.3 per cent of Africa’s infrastructure projects, followed by firms in Australia (2.5 per cent), and the Middle East (2.5 per cent).
According to the report, the total number of projects in East Africa rose by 96 per cent between 2017 and 2018, with high value projects such as Kenya’s Konza Technology Park and Tanzania’s Bagamoyo megaport boosting the region’s infrastructure agenda.
Kenya has the largest number of projects in East Africa, with 41 projects valued at $38.2 million, followed by Ethiopia with 38 projects valued at $19.1 million.
The transport sector in East Africa’s accounts for 45.3 per cent of all projects in the region and 26.6 per cent of their dollar value.
Energy and power projects account for a significantly lower share of projects, at 18 per cent in number and 21.1 per cent in value terms.
According to the report, the transport and energy sectors are critical to the EAC’s development strategy.
Public officers above 58 years and with pre-existing conditions told to work from home: The Standard
Head of Public Service Joseph Kinyua. [File, Standard]
In a document from Head of Public Service, Joseph Kinyua new measure have been outlined to curb the bulging spread of covid-19. Public officers with underlying health conditions and those who are over 58 years -a group that experts have classified as most vulnerable to the virus will be required to execute their duties from home.
However, the new rule excluded personnel in the security sector and other critical and essential services.
“All State and public officers with pre-existing medical conditions and/or aged 58 years and above serving in CSG5 (job group ‘S’) and below or their equivalents should forthwith work from home,” read the document,” read the document.
To ensure that those working from home deliver, the Public Service directs that there be clear assignments and targets tasked for the period designated and a clear reporting line to monitor and review work done.
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Others measures outlined in the document include the provision of personal protective equipment to staff, provision of sanitizers and access to washing facilities fitted with soap and water, temperature checks for all staff and clients entering public offices regular fumigation of office premises and vehicles and minimizing of visitors except by prior appointments.
Officers who contract the virus and come back to work after quarantine or isolation period will be required to follow specific directives such as obtaining clearance from the isolation facility certified by the designated persons indicating that the public officer is free and safe from Covid-19. The officer will also be required to stay away from duty station for a period of seven days after the date of medical certification.
“The period a public officer spends in quarantine or isolation due to Covid-19, shall be treated as sick leave and shall be subject to the Provisions of the Human Resource Policy and procedures Manual for the Public Service(May,2016),” read the document.
The service has also made discrimination and stigmatization an offence and has guaranteed those affected with the virus to receive adequate access to mental health and psychosocial supported offered by the government.
The new directives targeting the Public Services come at a time when Kenyans have increasingly shown lack of strict observance of the issued guidelines even as the number of positive Covid-19 cases skyrocket to 13,771 and leaving 238 dead as of today.
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Principal Secretaries/ Accounting Officers will be personally responsible for effective enforcement and compliance of the current guidelines and any future directives issued to mitigate the spread of Covid-19.
Uhuru convenes summit to review rising Covid-19 cases: The Standard
President Uhuru Kenyatta (pictured) will on Friday, July 24, meet governors following the ballooning Covid-19 infections in recent days.
The session will among other things review the efficacy of the containment measures in place and review the impact of the phased easing of the restrictions, State House said in a statement.
This story is being updated.
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Drastic life changes affecting mental health
Kenya has been ranked 6th among African countries with the highest cases of depression, this has triggered anxiety by the World Health Organization (WHO), with 1.9 million people suffering from a form of mental conditions such as depression, substance abuse.
Globally, one in four people is affected by mental or neurological disorders at some point in their lives, this is according to the WHO.
Currently, around 450 million people suffer from such conditions, placing mental disorders among the leading causes of ill-health and disability worldwide.
The pandemic has also been known to cause significant distress, mostly affecting the state of one’s mental well-being.
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With the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic attributed to the novel Coronavirus disease, millions have been affected globally with over 14 million infections and half a million deaths as to date. This has brought about uncertainty coupled with difficult situations, including job loss and the risk of contracting the deadly virus.
In Kenya the first Coronavirus case was reported in Nairobi by the Ministry of Health on the 12th March 2020. It was not until the government put in place precautionary measures including a curfew and lockdown (the latter having being lifted) due to an increase in the number of infections that people began feeling its effect both economically and socially.
A study by Dr. Habil Otanga, a Lecturer at the University of Nairobi, Department of Psychology says that such measures can in turn lead to surge in mental related illnesses including depression, feelings of confusion, anger and fear, and even substance abuse. It also brings with it a sense of boredom, loneliness, anger, isolation and frustration. In the post-quarantine/isolation period, loss of employment due to the depressed economy and the stigma around the disease are also likely to lead to mental health problems.
The Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) states that at least 300,000 Kenyans have lost their jobs due to the Coronavirus pandemic between the period of January and March this year.
KNBC noted that the number of employed Kenyans plunged to 17.8 million as of March from 18.1 million people as compared to last year in December. The Report states that the unemployment rate in Kenya stands at 13.7 per cent as of March this year while it stood 12.4 per cent in December 2019.
Mama T (not her real name) is among millions of Kenyans who have been affected by containment measures put in place to curb the spread of the virus, either by losing their source of income or having to work under tough guidelines put in place by the MOH.
As young mother and an event organizer, she has found it hard to explain to her children why they cannot go to school or socialize freely with their peers as before.
“Sometimes it gets difficult as they do not understand what is happening due to their age, this at times becomes hard on me as they often think I am punishing them,”
Her contract was put on hold as no event or public gatherings can take place due to the pandemic. This has brought other challenges along with it, as she has to find means of fending for her family expenditures that including rent and food.
“I often wake up in the middle of the night with worries about my next move as the pandemic does not exhibit any signs of easing up,” she says. She adds that she has been forced to sort for manual jobs to keep her family afloat.
Ms. Mary Wahome, a Counseling Psychologist and Programs Director at ‘The Reason to Hope,’ in Karen, Nairobi says that such kind of drastic life changes have an adverse effect on one’s mental status including their family members and if not addressed early can lead to depression among other issues.
“We have had cases of people indulging in substance abuse to deal with the uncertainty and stress brought about by the pandemic, this in turn leads to dependence and also domestic abuse,”
Sam Njoroge , a waiter at a local hotel in Kiambu, has found himself indulging in substance abuse due to challenges he is facing after the hotel he was working in was closed down as it has not yet met the standards required by the MOH to open.
“My day starts at 6am where I go to a local pub, here I can get a drink for as little as Sh30, It makes me suppress the frustration I feel.” he says.
Sam is among the many who have found themselves in the same predicament and resulted to substance abuse finding ways to beat strict measures put in place by the government on the sale of alcohol so as to cope.
Mary says, situations like Sam’s are dangerous and if not addressed early can lead to serious complications, including addiction and dependency, violent behavior and also early death due to health complications.
She has, however, lauded the government for encouraging mental wellness and also launching the Psychological First Aid (PFA) guide in the wake of the virus putting emphasis on the three action principal of look, listen and link. “When we follow this it will be easy to identify an individual in distress and also offer assistance”.
Mary has urged anyone feeling the weight of the virus taking a toll on them not to hesitate but look for someone to talk to.
“You should not only seek help from a specialist but also talk to a friend, let them know what you are undergoing and how you feel, this will help ease their emotional stress and also find ways of dealing with the situation they are facing,” She added
Mary continued to stress on the need to perform frequent body exercises as a form of stress relief, reading and also taking advantage of this unfortunate COVID-19 period to engage in hobbies and talent development.
“Let people take this as an opportunity to kip fit, get in touch with one’s inner self and also engage in reading that would help expand their knowledge.