At a health centre in West Pokot’s Masol community, a woman is seated on a hospital bed, breastfeeding her newborn baby.
Her friend, also with a child, is keeping the new mother company as she nurses the two-hour-old baby.
“This one just delivered this evening so I can’t let her go home yet. I need to observe her and if all goes well, she can go tomorrow,” says Edinah Chepchumba, the nursing officer in charge of Masol Dispensary in West Pokot County.
In a county where the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) is rife, Mary lives for such rare moments when deliveries go well, enabling mothers to bring children to the world without health complications that put their lives and those of the babies at risk.
The prevalence of FGM in West Pokot County is approximately 74 per cent based on a 2017 Unicef report.
This has been a major contributor to the high cases of maternal and child deaths in the region.
According to a World Health Organisation (WHO) collaborative study that was published in the Lancet Medical Journal, women who have undergone FGM are more likely to experience difficulties during childbirth. Their babies also have higher chances of dying.
Nurse Chepchumba, who has delivered more than 300 babies at the dispensary since 2016 notes that all pregnant women who sought services at the health centre had undergone FGM.
She states that female circumcision usually makes the vaginal openings of women narrower and inelastic, leading to prolonged labour as the baby struggles to come out.
This can lead to severe vaginal tears, resulting in haemorrhage (severe bleeding) that is a leading cause of maternal deaths in Kenya.
Research shows that a mother who has been circumcised also runs the risk of having a stillbirth, as well as delivering babies with breathing complications who will require resuscitation after birth to allay brain damage and death.
Nevertheless, the WHO estimates that death rates among babies during and immediately after birth is between 15 percent and 55 percent being higher among circumcised mothers compared to uncut women.
“Culture is deeply rooted in this community. Girls as young as 10, 14 or 15 years will be circumcised. And once this happens, they are considered ripe for marriage,” says Ms Chepchumba.
“So they will be carrying babies when they themselves are still children with bodies not yet fully developed to carry pregnancies. This endangers their lives.”
She notes that enhanced awareness on the significance of hospital deliveries and ante-natal care check-ups is crucial to curtailing complications among circumcised women who are considered to have high risk pregnancies.
“Many girls and women here prefer seeking the services of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) who are unable to deal with the complications. So women are usually brought here when things are bad and it may be too late.”
The nurse states that some of these TBAs also double up as female circumcisers. As such, they are usually reluctant to offers services to uncircumcised mothers. This puts pressure on girls in the Pokot community to undergo FGM before conception. Sometimes, the women may be circumcised when they are already pregnant.
Government statistics show that only 18 percent and 26 percent of pregnant women in West Pokot have the recommended ANCs and deliver at hospitals respectively.
To further save lives and allay adverse outcomes, Ms Chepchumba states that health centres frequented by communities need to be well equipped with supplies and trained clinicians that can effectively handle pregnancy complications when they arise.
“In instances where the affected woman needs to be transferred to a higher level facility, easily accessible ambulances should be within reach for fast transportation. Our terrain here is bad and referral hospitals are far away. So adequate transport is important.”
Mr Patrick Mugun, the County Child Protection Director in West Pokot states that due to ignorance and low education levels, the community still clings to their culture, which strongly advocates for FGM.
The government in partnership with NGOs such as Unicef and World Vision have been rolling out a life skills training initiative dubbed ‘Alternative Rights of Passage’ which sensitises both boys and girls on the ill effects of the practice.
“This is helping to spread the anti-FGM message and to create advocates — both boys and girls — who are against the practice,” says Moses Chepkonga, the education and child protection manager of World Vision in West Pokot.
He notes that sustained political will in the FGM fight is paramount for ending the practice.
“Political leaders here are still afraid to condemn the practice in public for fear of losing votes. This needs to change because we need them to be fully committed to ending FGM.”
To effectively beat female circumcision, Mr Mugun states that interventions should cover all parts of the county.
“Due to minimal resources, most interventions are concentrated in just a few areas. Therefore, when circumcisers feel the heat in one area, they move to other parts and continue with the practice.”
In North Pokot and Central Pokot, the prevalence of FGM is close to 90 percent, compared to Pokot South and West Pokot sub-counties that have a prevalence of about 50 percent due to interventions rolled out in the areas.
“These disparities create loopholes for people perpetuating FGM. Therefore, parents wanting their children to be circumcised usually travel with them to the neglected areas where they are unlikely to be caught. Once they are done, they come back home and marry off their daughters.”
Numerous rescue centres established in West Pokot County are playing a key role in enabling girls running away from FGM to stay in a secure environment where they can pursue education without the fear of forcefully being circumcised.
The government in partnership with key stakeholders are also sensitising elders, religious leaders and other influential community members on the need to eradicate FGM, which is illegal in Kenya.
“By building the capacity of the Police Service on FGM and legal processes surrounding the practise, we are increasingly arresting and charging anyone found to be engaging in female circumcision so we can eventually do away with this injustice,” states Mr Mugun.
BCCI: The bank ‘that would bribe God’
“This bank would bribe God.” These words of a former employee of the disgraced Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) sum up one of the most rotten global financial institutions.
BCCI pitched itself as a top bank for the Third World, but its spectacular collapse would reveal a web of transnational corruption and a playground for dictators, drug lords and terrorists.
It was one of the largest banks cutting across 69 countries and its aftermath would cause despair to innocent depositors, including Kenyans.
BCCI, which had $20 billion (Sh2.1 trillion in today’s exchange rate) assets globally, was revealed to have lost more than its entire capital.
The bank was founded in 1972 by the crafty Pakistani banker Agha Hasan Abedi.
He was loved in his homeland for his charitable acts but would go on to break every rule known to God and man.
In 1991, the Bank of England (BoE) froze its assets, citing large-scale fraud running for several years. This would see the bank cease operations in multiple countries. The Luxembourg-based BCCI was 77 per cent owned by the Gulf Emirate of Abu Dhabi.
BoE investigations had unearthed laundering of drugs money, terrorism financing and the bank boasted of having high-profile customers such as Panama’s former strongman Manual Noriega as customers.
The Standard, quoting “highly placed” sources reported that Abu Dhabi ruler Sheikh Zayed Sultan would act as guarantor to protect the savings of Kenyan depositors.
The bank had five branches countrywide and panic had gripped depositors on the state of their money.
Central Bank of Kenya (CBK) would then move to appoint a manager to oversee the operations of the BCCI operations in Kenya.
It sent statements assuring depositors that their money was safe.
The Standard reported that the Sheikh would be approaching the Kenyan and other regional subsidiaries of the bank to urge them to maintain operations and assure them of his personal support.
It was said that contact between CBK and Abu Dhabi was “likely.”
This came as the British Ambassador to the UAE Graham Burton implored the gulf state to help compensate Britons, and the Indian government also took similar steps.
The collapse of BCCI was, however, not expect to badly hit the Kenyan banking system. This was during the sleazy 1990s when Kenya’s banking system was badly tested. It was the era of high graft and “political banks,” where the institutions fraudulently lent to firms belonging or connected to politicians, who were sometimes also shareholders.
And even though the impact was expected to be minimal, it was projected that a significant number of depositors would transfer funds from Asian and Arab banks to other local institutions.
“Confidence in Arab banking has taken a serious knock,” the “highly placed” source told The Standard.
BCCI didn’t go down without a fight. It accused the British government of a conspiracy to bring down the Pakistani-run bank. The Sheikh was said to be furious and would later engage in a protracted legal battle with the British.
“It looks to us like a Western plot to eliminate a successful Muslim-run Third World Bank. We know that it often acted unethically. But that is no excuse for putting it out of business, especially as the Sultan of Abu Dhabi had agreed to a restructuring plan,” said a spokesperson for British Asians.
A CBK statement signed by then-Deputy Governor Wanjohi Murithi said it was keenly monitoring affairs of the mother bank and would go to lengths to protect Kenyan depositors.
“In this respect, the CBK has sought and obtained the assurance of the branch’s management that the interests of depositors are not put at risk by the difficulties facing the parent company and that the bank will meet any withdrawal instructions by depositors in the normal course of business,” said Mr Murithi.
CBK added that it had maintained surveillance of the local branch and was satisfied with its solvency and liquidity.
This was meant to stop Kenyans from making panic withdrawals.
For instance, armed policemen would be deployed at the bank’s Nairobi branch on Koinange Street after the bank had announced it would shut its Kenyan operations.
In Britain, thousands of businesses owned by British Asians were on the verge of financial ruin following the closure of BCCI.
Their firms held almost half of the 120,000 bank accounts registered with BCCI in Britain.
The African Development Bank was also not spared from this mess, with the bulk of its funds deposited and BCCI and stood to lose every coin.
In Britain, local authorities from Scotland to the Channel Islands are said to have lost over £100 million (Sh15.2 billion in today’s exchange rate).
The biggest puzzle remained how BCCI was allowed by BoE and other monetary regulation authorities globally to reach such levels of fraudulence.
This was despite the bank being under tight watch owing to the conviction of some of its executives on narcotics laundering charges in the US.
Coast politician, the late Shariff Nassir, would claim that five primary schools in Mombasa lost nearly Sh1 million and appealed to then Education Minister George Saitoti to help recover the savings. Then BoE Governor Robin Leigh-Pemberton condemned it as so deeply immersed in fraud that rescue or recovery – at least in Britain – was out of the question.
“The culture of the bank is criminal,” he said. The bank was revealed to have targeted the Third World and had created several “institutional devices” to promote its operations in developing countries.
These included the Third World Foundation for Social and Economic Studies, a British-registered charity.
“It allowed it to cultivate high-level contacts among international statesmen,” reported The Observer, a British newspaper.
BCCI also arranged an annual Third World lecture and a Third World prize endowment fund of about $10 million (Sh1 billion in today’s exchange rate).
Winners of the annual prize had included Nelson Mandela (1985), sir Bob Geldof (1986) and Archbishop Desmond Tutu (1989).
East Africa celebrates top women in banking and finance
The Angaza Awards for Women to watch in Banking and Finance in East Africa took place Online via Zoom on 8th June 2021.
The event was set to celebrate the top 10 women shaping banking and finance across East Africa. The 2021 Angaza Awards, which will be a Pan-African Awards program, was also announced at the event.
Key speakers at this webinar were Dr Nancy Onyango, Director of Internal Audit and Inspection at the IMF; and Gail Evans, New York Times Best Selling Author of Play Like a Man, Win Like a Woman and former White House Aide and CNN Executive Vice President.
Dr Nancy Onyango advised women to deep expertise in their fields, spend time in forums and link with key players in that sector.
“Gain exposure with other cultures by seeking for employment overseas and use customized CV for each job application,” said Dr Onyango.
According to Gail Evans, women should show up and be fully present in meetings and not be preoccupied with other issues.
“Be simple and avoid jargon. Multi-tasking only means that you are mediocre Smart people ask good questions in a business meeting. Most women face drawbacks due to perfectionism, procrastination and fear of failure, said Evans.
She advised women to play like a man and win like a woman, be strategic, and intentionally make their moves to get to the top.
“For us to pull up businesses that have been affected by effects of COVID-19 pandemic, we need to re-invent business models, change the product offering and make more use of digital platforms,” said Mary Wamae Equity Group Executive Director.
Mary Wamae emerged top at the inaugural Angaza awards( East Africa) ahead of other finalists.
While women continue to excel in banking and finance, the number of that occupies top executive positions is still less.
“There is a gap for women occupying C suite level and it continues to widen in the finance sector. At entry level, there is still an experience gap for women,” said Nkirote Mworia, Group Secretary for UAP-Old Mutual Group.
She said that at the Middle Management level, women do not express their ambition. For this reason, UAP-Old Mutual has developed an executive sponsorship program to help women get to the next level.
Mworia added that most women hold the notion that top positions in management have politics and pressure.
“One needs leadership skills and not technical expertise to get to the top,” said Mworia.
According to Catherine Karimi, Chief Executive Officer and Principal Officer of APA Life Assurance Company, women need to focus on the strengths and natural abilities that they already have.
“Take risks and raise your hand to get to the high table. Find mentors along the way and develop your own brand and not compare yourself with others Focus on your strengths because it will make you move faster in the career ladder,” said Karimi.
Lina Mukashyaka Higiro, a Rwandan businesswoman and chief executive officer of the NCBA Bank Rwanda since July 2018, has three lessons for women who want to excel in banking and finance.
“Always spend at least 20 minutes each day reading, seeking genuine feedback from other staff members and widen your network,” Higiro told the webinar.
Women picked for Angaza awards
Mary Wamae, Executive Director, led this year’s Top 10 Women in Angaza Awards, Equity Group (Kenya)(2)Catherine Karimi, Chief Executive Officer, APA Life Insurance Company (Kenya)(3)Lina Higiro, Chief Executive Officer, NCBA Bank (Rwanda)(4)Elizabeth Wasunna Ochwa, Business Banking Director, Absa Bank (Kenya)(5)Joanita Jaggwe, Country Head of Risk and Compliance, KCB Group (South Sudan)(6) Millicent Omukaga, Technical Assistance Expert on Inclusive Finance, African Development Bank (Kenya)(7)Emmanuella Nzahabonimana, Head of Information Technology, KCB Group (Rwanda)(8)Judith Sidi Odhiambo, Group Head of Corporate Affairs, KCB Group (Kenya)(9)Rosemary Ngure, ESG & Impact Manager, Catalyst Principal Partners (Kenya) and(10)Pooja Bhatt, Co-Founder, QuantaRisk and QuantaInsure (Kenya).
The Kenyan Wallstreet, a financial media firm, partnered with Kaleidoscope Consultants to raise awareness of seasoned women shaping and influencing the sector through their organizations.
The Angaza Award criteria included assessing the applicants’ area of responsibility and contribution to firm performance. Professionals in Banking, Capital Markets, Insurance, Investment Banking, Fintech, Fund Management, Microfinance, and SACCOs were invited to submit their applications or nominations via the Kenyan Wallstreet Award Web page.
IFC in New Partnership to Develop Affordable Housing in Mombasa County
NAIROBI, Kenya, Jun 14 – International Finance Corporation, a member of the World Bank Group, has signed a new deal in support of affordable housing in Kenya.
The corporation has partnered with Belco Realty LLP, to develop a mixed use affordable living complex that will consist of 1,379 residential units and over 4,500 square meters of retail and commercial spaces in Kongowea, Mombasa County.
Together with the Kenyan firm, IFC says the partnership will help meet surging demand for housing in Kenya.
Under the agreement, IFC will help identify suitable international strategic partners to invest equity of up to $12 million, or Sh1.3 billion in Belco and to provide the company with the necessary technical support to develop the project.
The development, known as Kongowea Village, will be developed to foster inclusive and affordable community living within the city.
Jumoke Jagun-Dokunmu, IFC’s Regional Director for Eastern Africa says the project, which will be located on eight acres within the heart of Mombasa city, will aim to be a catalyst for wider city regeneration.
The project will be developed to meet IFC EDGE certification requirements and will incorporate the latest technologies in passive cooling, energy efficiency and water conservation to support sustainable urbanization.
Kongowea Village is expected to create 1,160 jobs and business opportunities during the three-year construction period and many more after completion of the project within the themed retail arcade.
“Access to quality housing is a growing problem in Kenya and across Africa,” said Jumoke Jagun-Dokunmu, IFC’s Regional Director for Eastern Africa.
“Developers often target the high end of the market, but this project is aimed squarely at the lower-income bracket. Helping Belco identify the right partners for this project is expected to attract more developers to Kenya and other parts of Africa to help meet rising demand for housing.”
“IFC‘s engagement with Belco will help Kenya support its rapidly growing and urbanizing population by increasing access to affordable housing. The problem is similar across most of Africa, where population growth and demand for quality housing are combining to outstrip supply. We are pleased to partner with a company such as Belco that is committed to contributing to solving this challenge,” said Emmanuel Nyirinkindi, IFC‘s Director for Transaction Advisory Services.
IFC’s partnership with Belco is part of its broader strategy to support better access to affordable housing in Kenya.
In 2020, IFC invested $2 million in equity in the Kenya Mortgage Refinance Company (KMRC) to help increase access to affordable mortgages and support home ownership in the country.